Transport-area-integrated photovoltaics comprises the integration into and near road-ways and railways. The PV modules can be integrated directly into roads, cycleways, footpaths or urban squares, but also over the sleepers of railway tracks or into associated areas like noise barriers or highway verges.
The available areas are enormous but also the requirements are stringent and expecta-tions are high. A current approach to develop particularly resilient modules is based on reinforced and structured glass surfaces. Within a research project at Fraunhofer ISE, the structure of PV road-paving elements was developed to achieve an optimal electricity yield, a long lifetime and safety.