Yes, without any significant conflicts with agriculture.
An important concept for the development of significant land potential is integration. Integrated photovoltaics enables double land use, additional land consumption for new PV power plants is significantly reduced or completely avoided. For this purpose, PV systems specially tailored to the application are combined with agriculture, erected on artificial lakes, used as envelopes for buildings, parking lots, traffic routes and vehicles, or they provide ecosystem services on renaturalized biotope and moorland areas (Figure 29).
In the following analysis of potential, a distinction is made between a theoretical, a technical and an economic-practical, feasible or exploitable potential. The theoretical potential considers the maximum possible implementation of a technology on the basis of the total supply (physical rough calculation). The technical potential is lower because it already takes basic technical constraints into account (technical rough calculation). The economic-practical potential takes into account all relevant boundary conditions, in particular legal (including nature conservation), economic (including infrastructure), sociological (including acceptance), as well as competing uses (e.g. solar thermal energy and PV on roofs). Different sources draw somewhat different boundaries between the categories.
The agriculturally used area in Germany is just under 17 million hectares (theoretical potential, Figure 29). Agri-Photovoltaics (APV, see www.agri-pv.org) uses land simultaneously for agricultural crop production (photosynthesis) and PV electricity production (photovoltaics). APV covers a wide spectrum in the intensity of agriculture and in the additional cost of PV system construction. It ranges from intensive crops with dedicated PV mounting systems to extensive grassland with marginal adaptations on the PV side and high potential for ecosystem services. APV increases land efficiency and enables massive expansion of PV power, while preserving fertile soils for agriculture or in combination with the creation of species-rich biotopes on lean soils. Worldwide, APV is already used on a GW scale; in Germany, there are only a few systems.
Agrivoltaics with highly elevated modules allows crops to be grown partially shaded under the modules. A number of crops show hardly any yield loss with reduced irradiation, some even benefit. If permanent crops (e.g., orchards and vineyards) are considered in their entirety and arable land (excluding corn crops) is considered one-third of the technical potential, an occupancy density of 0.6 MWP/ha results in a technical potential of 1.7 TWP. Modules mounted close to the ground with wide row spacing allow cultivation between rows. At an occupancy density of 0.25 MWP/ha, the cultivation of forage crops on permanent grassland alone opens up a technical potential of a further 1.2 TWP.
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