Silicon Material and Semiconductor Substrates

In the research topic "Silicon Materials and Semiconductor Substrates", we have extensive expertise in technologies, systems and processes for chemical vapor deposition from chlorosilanes (Si, SiC and Ge). Our goal is to provide high-quality and sustainable silicon and germanium wafers with a very low CO2 footprint.

The focus of our research and development work is on epitaxially grown wafers (EpiWafers) and reusable growth templates. In addition to gas phase deposition, the electrochemical etching of a porous layer stack and its reorganization are central processes that enable the EpiWafer to be detached. In addition, the production of the EpiWafers includes the cost-effective preparation of the mother substrate (epi-ready) and the lift-off process. The refinement of reactor parts with SiC layers and the efficient use of process gases are further important competencies for the successful implementation of the EpiWafer concept.  

In close cooperation with wafer and equipment manufacturers, we test innovative processes for their basic functionality and develop them further in the direction of high throughput and low manufacturing costs. Our work has resulted in numerous patents that are available for licensing.

Fields of Work

In the research topic "Silicon Material and Semiconductor Substrates" we focus on the following fields of work:

Epitaxial Silicon Wafers and Films

Reusable and Customized Templates for Crystalline Growth

R&D Infrastructure

This infrastructure is available to us at Fraunhofer ISE for our research and development activities:

  • Microelectronics CVD reactor for high-purity Si and Ge epitaxy for up to M6 substrates (PEpi)
  • Laboratory CVD reactors for Si epitaxy (RTCVD100 / RTCVD160)
  • Laboratory CVD reactor for SiC deposition (ZS-RTCVD)
  • Several wet chemistry laboratories for substrate preparation and defect etching
  • Electrochemical porosification systems for 4" to 300 mm round and 166x166 mm2
  • Tempering furnaces of various cleanliness classes (H2, Ar, N2 atmosphere)
  • Surface definition and lift-off equipment
  • Optical microscopes for surface inspection, automatic defect analysis and coating thickness determination

Current Publications on the Topic "Silicon Material and Semiconductor Substrates"

Jahr
Year
Titel/Autor:in
Title/Author
Publikationstyp
Publication Type
2023 Silizium: Vom Material zum Wafer - Status und notwendige Entwicklungsschritte
Dold, Peter
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2023 High Lifetime Ga-doped Cz-Si for Carrier-Selective Junction Solar Cells
Horzel, Jörg; Mack, Sebastian; Voicu Vulcanean, Ioan; Zimmermann, Karin; Pingel, Sebastian; Kwapil, Wolfram; Maischner, Felix; Höffler, Hannes; Bashardoust, Sattar; Wagenmann, Dirk; Greulich, Johannes; Seif, Johannes; Steinmetz, Anamaria; Rentsch, Jochen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 A Grain Orientation-Independent Single-Step Saw Damage Gettering/Wet texturing Process for Efficient Silicon Solar Cells
Jung, Yujin; Min, Kwan Hong; Post, Regina; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schubert, Martin; Kim, Donghwan; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Sok
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Epitaxially Grown p-type Silicon Wafers Ready for Cell Efficiencies Exceeding 25%
Rittmann, Clara; Schindler, Florian; Richter, Armin; Niewelt, Tim; Stolzenburg, Hannah; Steinhauser, Bernd; Dalke, Jonas; Drießen, Marion; Weiss, Charlotte; Janz, Stefan; Schubert, Martin
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 High Lifetime Ga-Doped Cz-Si for Carrier Selective Junction Solar Cells
Horzel, Jörg; Mack, Sebastian; Voicu Vulcanean, Ioan; Zimmermann, Karin; Pingel, Sebastian; Kwapil, Wolfram; Maischner, Felix; Höffler, Hannes; Bashardoust, Sattar; Wagenmann, Dirk; Greulich, Johannes; Seif, Johannes; Steinmetz, Anamaria; Rentsch, Jochen
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 LeTID mitigation via an adapted firing process in p-type PERC cells from SMART cast-monocrystalline, Czochralski and high-performance multicrystalline silicon
Maischner, Felix; Maus, Stephan; Greulich, Johannes M.; Lohmüller, Sabrina; Lohmüller, Elmar; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Ourinson, Daniel; Vahlman, Henri; Hergert, K.; Riepe, Stephan; Glunz, Stefan W.; Rein, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Epitaxially grown p-type silicon wafers ready for cell efficiencies exceeding 25 %
Rittmann, Clara; Dalke, Jonas; Richter, Armin; Steinhauser, Bernd; Drießen, Marion; Weiss, Charlotte; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin; Janz, Stefan; Niewelt, Tim; Stolzenburg, Hannah
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Electronic Characteristics of Ultra-Thin Passivation Layers for Silicon Photovoltaics
Pain, Sophie L.; Khorani, Edris; Niewelt, Tim; Wratten, Ailish; Paez Fajardo, Galo J.; Winfield, Ben P.; Bonilla, Ruy S.; Walker, Marc; Piper, Louis F. J.; Grant, Nicholas E.; Murphy, John D.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 21.4% Efficient SMART mono-Si PERC Solar Cells with Adapted Firing Process for LeTID Mitigation
Maischner, Felix; Maus, Stephan; Greulich, Johannes; Lohmüller, Sabrina; Lohmüller, Elmar; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Ourinson, Daniel; Hergert, Karin; Riepe, Stephan; Glunz, Stefan; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 PERC-Cells from 100% Recycling-Silicon from End-of-Life PV-Modules
Dold, Peter; Obst, Andreas; Henatsch, Peter; Zobel, Frank; Riepe, Stephan; Wagenmann, Dirk; Lohmüller, Elmar; Lohmüller, Sabrina
Meeting Abstract
2022 Growth of Highly Doped Silicon Cz-Monocrystals with Alternate Doping Substances
Zobel, Frank; Kunert, Roland; Dold, Peter
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 Efficiency Potential Analysis of p- and n-Type Epitaxially Grown Si Wafers
Rittmann, Clara; Dalke, Jonas; Drießen, Marion; Weiss, Charlotte; Schindler, Florian; Sorgenfrei, Ralf; Schubert, Martin C.; Janz, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 The Potential of Cast Silicon
Schubert, Martin C.; Schindler, Florian; Benick, Jan; Riepe, Stephan; Krenckel, Patricia; Richter, Armin; Müller, Ralph; Hammann, Benjamin; Nold, Sebastian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Propagation of Crystal Defects During Directional Solidification of Silicon via Induction of Functional Defects
Krenckel, Patricia; Hayama, Y.; Schindler, Florian; Trötschler, Theresa; Riepe, Stephan; Usami, N.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Influence of Dopant Elements on Degradation Phenomena in B- and Ga-Doped Czochralski-grown Silicon
Kwapil, Wolfram; Dalke, Jonas; Post, Regina; Niewelt, Tim
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 The Crystal Growth Explorer: Real-Time Navigable 3D Visualization of Silicon Grains and Defect Related Data in Cast-Mono and Multicrystalline Bricks
Schönauer, J.; Demant, Matthias; Trötschler, Theresa; Kovvali, Aditya Sai; Schremmer, H.; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Atom Probe Tomography Study of Gettering in High-Performance Multicrystalline Silicon
Tweddle, D.; Hamer, P.; Shen, Z.; Heinz, Friedemann D.; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Schindler, Florian; Wilshaw, Peter R.; Moody, M.P.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 LeTID- and (Extended) BO-Related Degradation and Regeneration in B- and Ga-Doped Monocrystalline Silicon during Dark and Illuminated Anneals
Kwapil, Wolfram; Dalke, Jonas; Niewelt, Tim; Schubert, Martin C.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Early Stage Quality Assesment in Silicon Ingots from MDP Brick Characterization
Kovvali, Aditya Sai; Demant, Matthias; Rebba, B.; Schüler, N.; Haunschild, Jonas; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Correlation of defect luminescence and recombination in multicrystalline silicon
Wyller, Guro Marie; Schindler, Florian; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schön, Jonas; Olsen, Espen; Haug, Halvard; Riepe, Stephan; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Enhanced Material Quality in SMART Moni-Si Block Cast Ingots by Introduction of Functional Defects
Riepe, Stephan; Krenckel, Patricia; Hayama, Y.; Hess, Adam; Trötschler, Theresa; Kutsukake, K.; Maus, Stephan; Schindler, Florian; Usami, N.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Development of high performance multicrystalline silicon with controlled seeding
Hess, Adam; Krenckel, Patricia; Trötschler, Theresa; Fehrenbach, Tobias; Riepe, Stephan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Slurry Sawing of Multicrystalline Silicon with Low-Viscosity Carrier Liquid
Kaden, Thomas; Look, C.; Ischenko, V.; Gröschel, M.; Anspach, O.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Photonic structures for III-V//Si multi-junction solar cells with efficiency >33%
Bläsi, Benedikt; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Tucher, Nico; Cariou, Romain; Benick, Jan; Feldmann, Frank; Beutel, Paul; Lackner, David; Siefer, Gerald; Glunz, Stefan W.; Bett, Andreas W.; Dimroth, Frank; Hermle, Martin
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Trends in Solar Electricity
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2018 Towards the Efficiency Limits of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Schindler, Florian; Fell, Andreas; Müller, Ralph; Benick, Jan; Richter, Armin; Feldmann, Frank; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Schubert, Martin C.; Glunz, Stefan W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2018 Metal Contamination in the Diamond Wire Sawing Process of Silicon and Influence on the Solar Cell Efficiency
Kaden, Thomas; Lottspeich, Lydia
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Instrumental determination of phosphorus in silicon for photovoltaics by v spectroscopy: A new approach
Karches, B.; Welter, K.; Stieghorst, C.; Wiehl, N.; Reich, T.; Riepe, Stephan; Krenckel, Patricia; Gerstenberg, H.; Plonka, C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Determination of impurity distributions in ingots of solar grade silicon by neutron activation analysis
Karches, B.; Schön, Jonas; Gerstenberg, H.; Hampel, G.; Krenckel, Patricia; Plonka, C.; Ponsard, B.; Riepe, Stephan; Stieghorst, C.; Wiehl, N.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Optimized multicrystalline silicon for solar cells enabling conversion efficiencies of 22%
Schindler, Florian; Michl, Bernhard; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Benick, Jan; Müller, Ralph; Richter, Armin; Glunz, Stefan W.; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 High-Efficiency n-Type HP MC Silicon Solar Cells
Benick, Jan; Richter, Armin; Müller, Ralph; Hauser, Hubert; Feldmann, Frank; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin C.; Hermle, Martin; Bett, Andreas W.; Glunz, Stefan W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Growth of large scale silicon crystals by the rf-heated float zone technique
Zobel, Frank; Mosel, F.; Störensen, J.; Dold, Peter
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Feeding of liquid silicon for high performance multicrystalline silicon with increased ingot height and homogenized resistivity
Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Schindler, Florian; Strauch, T.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 A novel approach to determine the diamond occupancy of diamond wires for optimized cutting processes for crystalline silicon
Lottspeich, Lydia; Theophil, L.; Fuchs, M.; Kaden, Thomas
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Rapid vapor-phase direct diffused emitter for solar cell applications
Kühnhold-Pospischil, Saskia; Gust, Elke; Amiri, Diana; Richter, Armin; Steinhauser, Bernd; Drießen, Marion; Michl, Bernhard; Greulich, Johannes M.; Benick, Jan; Lindekugel, Stefan; Janz, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Characterization of the diamond wire sawing process for monocrystalline silicon by raman spectroscopy and SIREX polarimetry
Würzner, S.; Herms, M.; Kaden, Thomas; Möller, H.J.; Wagner, M.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Approaching 22% efficiency with multicrystalline n-type silicon solar cells
Benick, Jan; Müller, Ralph; Schindler, Florian; Richter, Armin; Hauser, Hubert; Feldmann, Frank; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Schubert, Martin C.; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 The influence of material properties on the wire sawing process of multicrystalline silicon
Kaden, Thomas; Ershova, E.; Lottspeich, Lydia; Fuchs, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 How to achieve efficiencies exceeding 22% with multicrystalline n-type silicon solar cells
Schindler, Florian; Michl, Bernhard; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Benick, Jan; Müller, Ralph; Richter, Armin; Glunz, Stefan W.; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Changes of solar cell parameters during damp-heat exposure
Zhu, J.; Köhl, Michael; Hoffmann, Stephan; Berger, K.A.; Zamini, S.; Bennett, I.; Gerritsen, E.; Malbranche, P.; Pugliatti, P.; Di Stefano, A.; Aleo, F.; Bertani, D.; Paletta, F.; Roca, F.; Graditi, G.; Pellegrino, M.; Zubillaga, O.; Iranzo, F.J.C.; Pozza, A.; Sample, T.; Gottschalg, Ralph
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Insights into metastability of photovoltaic materials at the mesoscale through massive I-V analytics
Peshek, T.J.; Fada, J.S.; Hu, Y.; Xu, Y.; Elsaeiti, M.A.; Schnabel, Erdmut; Köhl, Michael; French, Roger H.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Cost Effective Growth of Silicon Mono Ingots by the Application of a Mobile Recharge System in CZ-Puller
Mosel, F.; Denisov, A.V.; Klipp, B.; Spill, B.; Sharma, R.; Kunert, Roland; Dold, Peter
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2016 Impact of rain and soiling on potential induced degradation
Köhl, Michael; Hoffmann, Stephan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Improving the material quality of silicon ingots by aluminum gettering during crystal growth
Schön, Jonas; Krenckel, Patricia; Karches, B.; Schindler, Florian; Giesecke, Johannes A; Stieghorst, C.; Wiehl, N.; Schubert, Martin C.; Riepe, Stephan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 N-type multicrystalline silion for high efficiency solar cells
Riepe, Stephan; Krenckel, Patricia; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin C.; Benick, Jan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Optimized Grain Size of Seed Plates for High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon
Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Schindler, Florian; Strauch, T.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2016 Effect of thermal insulation of the back side of PV modules in the module temperature
Köhl, Michael; Hamperl, S.; Heck, Markus
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
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