Wet and Dry Chemical Processes

Our Wet and Dry Chemical Processes are all aimed at creating perfectly structured and conditioned surfaces for the production of solar cells. Structuring is carried out using etching processes, while conditioning involves cleaning processes.  

Etching processes can be carried out dry-chemically by reaction with elemental fluorine, and there are also wet-chemical etching processes which are usually carried out in a hot process solution. One such structuring process is the alkaline texturing process, in which the surface of silicon wafers is provided with a micro-pyramidal structure, which improves the optical properties of the cell. For these batch processes, we are researching approaches with novel chemical formulations and improvements in rinsing processes to increase resource efficiency.  Short, one-sided etching processes are carried out inline, where the wafers are transported horizontally but only come into contact with the etching medium on the underside. Our work is aimed at improving the one-sidedness of the processes and increasing the throughput of the systems by improving the system technology. Metallic conductor tracks can also be produced in wet-chemical (galvanic) processes. Our work is aimed at depositing contacts of the highest quality with low process complexity. At the same time, we replace costly and scarce silver with copper.  

The work is flanked by CFD simulations with which we can depict and improve flows and reactions in systems. A new field of work is the wet-chemical deposition of coatings. The current focus here is on the spray (pyrolytic) deposition of anti-reflective coatings and perovskite coatings. 

Fields of Work

In the research topic "Wet and Dry Chemical Processes" we focus on the following fields of work:

Wet Chemical Processes for Solar Cell Fabrication

Novel Cleaning Techniques for Solar Cell Fabrication

Dry Chemical Etching for Solar Cells

Spray Deposition for Solar Cells

Process Simulation and Digitalization for Solar Cell Fabrication

Galvanic Metallization for Solar Cells

R&D Infrastructure

At Fraunhofer ISE, we benefit from this infrastructure for our research and development activities:




Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center


Production and Measurement Technology for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells


Center for High Efficiency Solar Cells

In our "Center for High Efficiency Solar Cells", we have more than 1000 m2 of state-of-the-art clean room and laboratory space in which we test and optimize advanced PV technologies.


Martin Zimmer

Contact Press / Media

Dr. Martin Zimmer

Wet Chemical Process Technologies

Fraunhofer ISE
Heidenhofstr. 2
79110 Freiburg

Phone +49 761 4588-5479

Jonas Bartsch

Contact Press / Media

Dr. Jonas Bartsch

Cleanroom and Microtechnology

Fraunhofer ISE
Heidenhofstr. 2
79110 Freiburg

Phone +49 761 4588-5737