Technology Assessment and Transfer

Numerous new technologies and processes are being developed at Fraunhofer ISE in order to produce solar cells on an industrial scale faster, better and, above all, more cost-effectively and sustainably. Deciding which approach to pursue requires not only a scientifically sound technology assessment, but also detailed knowledge of the associated costs and ecological impacts. Through detailed process modelling and material flow analysis we perform techno-economic and ecological assessment of both current standard processes and various new technologies and process sequences. Our aim is to determine the most sustainable technology option, by considering the economic, environmental and social impacts based on specific boundary conditions.

Through direct contact with the relevant process specialists, both in-house and external, we are able to provide in-depth process evaluation. This ranges from laboratory scale processes that are still in the development phase to the investigation of more complex process sequences in a near-industrial pilot production environment. The knowhow gained provides the basis for an in depth assessment of the cost structure for different solar cell structures and process routes in a real industrial environment.

Fields of Work

In the research topic "Technology Assessment and Transfer" we focus on the following fields of work:

Market Analysis and Business Creation

Techno-Economic Assessment of PV Production Technologies along the PV Value Chain

Material Flow Analysis (MFA) and integrated PV Factory Planning

Resource Criticality Assessment

Life Cycle Assessment in Photovoltaics

Market Analysis & Business Creation

© Fraunhofer ISE
Historical and expected solar cell efficiency roadmap with existing and emerging next generation solar PV technologies.

In addition to technology expertise, we have long-term experience in the international photovoltaic market and industry developments, having worked with most of the relevant industry and research partners along the entire PV value chain.

Services

 

  • Technical and economical due diligence
  • Road mapping and business plan support

Techno-Economic Assessment of PV Production Technologies along the PV Value Chain

© Fraunhofer ISE
TCO graph showing the all-in cell production costs in $ct per Watt-peak for different PV technologies.

We analyse and compare the economic performance of different PV technologies and processes, while combining and/or optimizing elements of process design, process parameter modelling, equipment selection, capital expenditure (CAPEX), and operating expenditure (OPEX) projections. For the cost assessment of industrial production technologies, materials, and process sequences along their value chains, Fraunhofer ISE has developed the bottom-up calculation model “SCost”, which analyses the cost structure of individual process steps as well as entire production facilities.

© Fraunhofer ISE
LCOE development over time against expected electricity prices in Germany in 2030 for different scenarios.

Services

  • Cost of Ownership (COO) analysis of PV process technology according to SEMI standards E35 and E10
  • Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) analysis and comparison of different PV manufactoring routes within a production environment
  • Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) projection of PV cell and module technologies

Material Flow Analysis (MFA) and integrated PV Factory Planning

© Fraunhofer ISE
Life Cycle Inventory of a wafer, PV cell and PV module factory (the size of the images indicate the amount of the input).

We perform detailed Material Flow Analysis (MFA) for each processing step along the entire manufacturing process as well as associated treatment and recycling processes within the factory environment. The MFA is used to optimize process and material flows economically and ecologically.

We provide support in the planning of total facility layouts (including buildings, logistics and administration) as well as in the procurement of process and characterization equipment, based on the specific requirements of the targeted technology, process, and material flows.

© Fraunhofer ISE
Material process flow diagram of an Ingot and wafer factory.

Services

 

  • Dynamic throughput analysis of manufacturing process and material flows (PlantSim) with line optimisation
  • Support for equipment specification and selection, layout planning and set-up, including ramp-up, of PV production facilities
  • Economic projection for an integrated PV factory

Life Cycle Assessment in Photovoltaics

© Fraunhofer ISE
The various phases of LCA.

The production and operation of all components of the PV value chain, like any economic activity, leaves an ecological footprint and has an impact on the environment and resource consumption. Through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), we assess the environmental impact over the entire life cycle in different impact categories by modelling the energy and material flows throughout the individual production stages.

© Fraunhofer ISE
Evaluation of the Global Warming Potential (GWP) in different production locations (in CO2-eq/Wp).

Services

  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of PV technologies along the value chain
  • Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) calculation
  • Environmental Impact Assessment incl. CO2 and Water Footprint and Resource Use Analysis
  • Waste Treatment and Recycling Analysis
  • Environmental Product Declaration (EPD)
  • Energy Pay-Back Time (EPBT) Analysis 

Resource Criticality Assessment

© Fraunhofer ISE
Scope of Resource Criticality Assessment across the supply, vulnerability, environmental and social spheres.

We analyse the criticality of materials and products not only on a global and regional level. For industrial processes or technologies, we identify raw material requirements, map supply chains and highlight potential supply bottlenecks, based on an analysis of social, techno-economic and geopolitical risks and projections. These studies can serve to inform strategic business decisions as well as accompany product development.

© Fraunhofer ISE
Sankey diagram of the PV supply chain from raw material extraction (Quartz silica) to module production

Services

  • Supply Chain Mapping
  • Supply Risk Assessment
  • Social Risk Assessment

R&D Infrastructure

This infrastructure is available to us at Fraunhofer ISE for our research and development activities:

 

Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center

PV-TEC

Production and Measurement Technology for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Selected Research Projects

 

Emmvee

Fraunhofer ISE To Support PV Module Manufacturer Emmvee with New Solar Cell Production Line

 

HoloSolis

Fraunhofer ISE To Support Setup of PV Production Site in France

Current Publications on the Topic "Technology and Sustainability Assessment":

Jahr
Year
Titel/Autor:in
Title/Author
Publikationstyp
Publication Type
2024 Stability of industrial gallium-doped Czochralski silicon PERC cells and wafers
Niewelt, Tim; Maischner, Felix; Kwapil, Wolfram; Khorani, Edris; Pain, Sophie L.; Jung, Yujin; Hopkins, Eduard C. B.; Frosch, Manfred; Altermatt, Pietro P.; Guo, Harry; Wang, Yuchin; Grant, Nicholas E.; Murphy, John D.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Insights into circular material and waste flows from c-Si PV industry
Brailovsky Signoret, Peter Henri; Baumann, Kerstin; Held, Michael; Briem, Ann-Kathrin; Wambach, Karsten; Gervais, Estelle; Herceg, Sina; Mertvoy, Boris; Nold, Sebastian; Rentsch, Jochen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Collaboration Examples between Research and Industry at Fraunhofer
Philipps, Simon
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 R&D and Innovations for Photovoltaics
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 Photovoltaic Noise Barriers as Energy Generating Infrastructure: Functional Overview about Five Solutions
Forster, Jacob; Tsutskiridze, Giorgi; Kohlhauer, Reinhard; Huyeng, Jonas; Herr, Cornelius; Basler, Felix; Neuhaus, Dirk Holger; Heinrich, Martin; Rendler, Li Carlos
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2023 Comparison of PVT - heat pump systems with reference systems for the energy supply of a single-family house
Chhugani, Bharat; Pärisch, Peter; Helmling, Sebastian; Giovannetti, Federico
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Nachhaltige Photovoltaik-Produktion in Europa - Jetzt die Chancen ergreifen
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 High Lifetime Ga-doped Cz-Si for Carrier-Selective Junction Solar Cells
Horzel, Jörg; Mack, Sebastian; Voicu Vulcanean, Ioan; Zimmermann, Karin; Pingel, Sebastian; Kwapil, Wolfram; Maischner, Felix; Höffler, Hannes; Bashardoust, Sattar; Wagenmann, Dirk; Greulich, Johannes; Seif, Johannes; Steinmetz, Anamaria; Rentsch, Jochen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Die Photovoltaik in Erneuerbaren Energiesystemen und aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 Next Generation High-Throughput Cell Production Technologies: Impact on Equipment CAPEX, Footprint, and Labour Requirements
Goraya, Baljeet Singh; Georgiou-Sarlikiotis, Vasileios; Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Wolf, Andreas; Zimmer, Martin; Klawitter, Markus; Lorenz, Andreas; Ourinson, Daniel; Schneider, Jale; Greulich, Johannes; Emanuel, Gernot; Clement, Florian; Nold, Sebastian
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 F&E Entwicklungen vom Si-Material bis zum Modul: Nachhaltig und hochproduktiv
Wolf, Andreas
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 Photovoltaics at Multi-Terawatt Scale: Waiting is not an Option
Haegel, Nancy M.; Verlinden, Pierre; Victoria, Marta; Altermatt, Pietro; Atwater, Harry; Barnes, Teresa; Breyer, Christian; Case, Chris; Wolf, Stefaan de; Deline, Chris; Dharmrin, Marwan; Dimmler, Bernhard; Gloeckler, Markus; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Hallam, Bret; Haussener, Sophia; Holder, Burkhard; Jaeger, Ulrich; Jaeger-Waldau, Arnulf; Kaizuka, Izumi; Kikusator, Hiroshi; Kroposki, Benjamin; Kurtz, Sarah; Matsubara, Koji; Nowak, Stefan; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Peter, Christian; Peters, I. Marius; Philipps, Simon; Powalla, Michael; Rau, Uwe; Reindl, Thomas; Roumpani, Maria; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Schorn, Christian; Schlatmann, Rutger; Schossig, Peter; Schlatmann, Rutger; Sinton, Ron; Slaoui, Abdelilah; Smith, Brittany L.; Schneidewind, Peter; Stanbery, Billy; Topic, Marko; Tumas, William; Vasi, Juzer; Vetter, Matthias; Weber, Eicke; Weeber, Arthur; Weidlich, Anke; Weiss, Dirk; Bett, Andreas W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Every Cell Needs a Beautiful Image: On-The-Fly Contacting Measurements for High-Throughput Production
Kurumundayil, Leslie Lydia; Ramspeck, Klaus; Rein, Stefan; Demant, Matthias
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Risk-based due diligence in supply chains: The case of silver for photovoltaics
Gervais, Estelle; Kleijn, René; Nold, Sebastian; Voet, Ester van der
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Printing technologies for silicon solar cell metallization: A comprehensive review
Tepner, Sebastian; Lorenz, Andreas
Review
2023 Photovoltaics - from the Origins of Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems to the Present Day
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 PV-Produktion in Europa - Aktueller Status
Bett, Andreas W.; Rentsch, Jochen; Preu, Ralf
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2023 Simulation of Colored BIPV Modules Using Angular-Dependent Spectral Responsivity
Clasing, Lionel; Riedel-Lyngskær, Nicholas; Reiners, Nils; Blieske, Ulf
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Combining Circularity and Environmental Metrics to Assess Material Flows of PV Silicon
Zubas, Aistis Rapolas; Fischer, Marie; Gervais, Estelle; Herceg, Sina; Nold, Sebastian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methane for solar fuel production using a TiO2 functionalized thin-film micro-reactor
Thalheim, Sebastian; Lorenz, Andreas; Wenzel, Timo; Pachigar, Bhavi; Knäbbeler-Buß, Markus; Witt, Diana; Bujnoch, Elisabeth; Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 PV at Multi-Terawatt Scale: Waiting is not an Option
Philipps, Simon
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 LED Solar Simulators - A Spectral Adjustment Procedure for Tandem Solar Cells
Chojniak, David; Bett, Alexander J.; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Reichmuth, Kasimir; Schachtner, Michael; Siefer, Gerald
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2023 Impuls Photovoltaik: Im Energiesystem und Produktion
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Combining Circularity and Environmental Metrics to Guide Development in PV
Zubas, Aistis Rapolas; Fischer, Marie; Gervais, Estelle; Herceg, Sina; Nold, Sebastian
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Herausforderung Energiewende - Was muss getan werden?
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 60)
Green, Martin A.; Dunlop, Ewan; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Yoshita, Masahiro; Kopidakis, Nikos; Bothe, Karsten; Hinken, David; Rauer, Michael; Hao, Xiaojing
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Herausforderungen bei der Energiewende
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Printed Triangle-Shaped Contacts for Metallization of Silicon Solar Cells
Tepner, Sebastian; Karimi, Kiarash; Vogt, Aaron; Göttlicher, Nathalie; Wengenmeyr, Manuel Noah; Ney, Linda; Auerbach, Simon; Linse, Michael; Schulz-Ruthenberg, Malte; Wenzel, Timo; Bechmann, Sebastian; Lorenz, Andreas; Clement, Florian
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 High Lifetime Ga-Doped Cz-Si for Carrier Selective Junction Solar Cells
Horzel, Jörg; Mack, Sebastian; Voicu Vulcanean, Ioan; Zimmermann, Karin; Pingel, Sebastian; Kwapil, Wolfram; Maischner, Felix; Höffler, Hannes; Bashardoust, Sattar; Wagenmann, Dirk; Greulich, Johannes; Seif, Johannes; Steinmetz, Anamaria; Rentsch, Jochen
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Ressourceneffizienz durch Kritikalitäts- und Zirkularitätsbewertung steuern - Der Beitrag der Umweltsimulation am Beispiel PV
Gervais, Estelle; Zubas, Aistis Rapolas; Nold, Sebastian; Weiß, Karl-Anders
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 The Promise Towards Terawatt Photovoltaics
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Assessing Current-Voltage Measurements of Busbarless Solar Cells
Rauer, Michael; Krieg, Alexander; Fell, Andreas; Pingel, Sebastian; Wöhrle, Nico; Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan; Schubert, Martin; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 On retrograde phosphorus concentration depth profiles in silicon after POCl3 diffusion and thermal oxidation
Horzel, Jörg; Mack, Sebastian; Meßmer, Marius; Schmidt, Stefan; Richter, Susanne; Wolf, Andreas; Schön, Jonas; Rentsch, Jochen
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Enabling savings in silver consumption and poly-Si thickness by integration of plated Ni/Cu/Ag contacts for bifacial TOPCon solar cells
Kluska, Sven; Haberstoh, Rene; Grübel, Benjamin; Cimiotti, Gisela; Kamp, Mathias; Schmiga, Christian; Brand, Andreas; Steinhauser, Bernd; Nägele, Andreas; Passig, Michael; Sieber, Markus; Brunner, Damian; Fox, Stephen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Wie kann der Ausbau von Photovoltaik und Windenergie beschleunigt werden?
Bett, Andreas W.; Erlach, Berit; Gölz, Sebastian; Gutnik, Magdalena; Müller, Florian Y.; Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard; Rens, Simona
Bericht
Report
2022 Lessons Learned From 25 Years Production Technology Research & Development
Preu, Ralf; Rentsch, Jochen; Rein, Stefan; Clement, Florian; Nekarda, Jan; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Lohmüller, Elmar; Lohmüller, Sabrina; Greulich, Johannes; Wöhrle, Nico; Pingel, Sebastian; Steinmetz, Anamaria; Baliozian, Puzant; Nold, Sebastian; Goraya, Baljeet Singh; Glunz, Stefan; Bett, Andreas W.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 New technologies in fuel cells
Keding, Roman
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Sustainability strategies in PV in line with the SDGs: Reinforcing effects and trade-offs
Gervais, Estelle
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Research on High-Efficiency Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon at Fraunhofer ISE
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Material requirements for the energy transition - Energy technology profiles and environmental impacts
Gervais, Estelle; Betten, Thomas; Shammugam, Shivenes; Graf, Roberta; Müller, Matthias; Schlegl, Thomas
Bericht
Report
2022 Assessing Current-Voltage Measurements of Busbarless Solar Cells
Rauer, Michael; Krieg, Alexander; Pingel, Sebastian; Fell, Andreas; Wöhrle, Nico; Greulich, Johannes; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Rein, Stefan
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Passivating contacts for highest efficient silicon solar cells - and beyond
Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan; Bivour, Martin; Benick, Jan; Polzin, Jana-Isabelle; Richter, Armin; Mack, Sebastian
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 The Influence of Different Degradation Characteristics on the Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Silicon Photovoltaics: A Threefold Analysis
Herceg, Sina; Kaaya, Ismail; Ascencio-Vásquez, Julián; Fischer, Marie; Weiß, Karl-Anders; Schebek, Liselotte
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Webinar "Gibt es das saubere Modul" - Stand der Technik
Bett, Alexander J.
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Sustainability, Criticality and Circularity in PV: Using SDG 12 as a lens to map sectoral gaps
Gervais, Estelle; Herceg, Sina; Nold, Sebastian; Weiß, Karl-Anders
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Photovoltaic will Power the World
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Warum wir eine europäische PV-Industrie brauchen und wie das gehen könnte
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 Opening Address EU-PVSEC 2021
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 The Potential of Cast Silicon
Schubert, Martin C.; Schindler, Florian; Benick, Jan; Riepe, Stephan; Krenckel, Patricia; Richter, Armin; Müller, Ralph; Hammann, Benjamin; Nold, Sebastian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Production of Photovoltaics in Europe. Opportunities and Challenges
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 Das Fraunhofer ISE und seine Forschungsaktivitäten
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 PV Manufacturing in Europe. Statements
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 Solarstrom als Pfeiler des Energiewandels
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 The Photovoltaics Renaissance - New Opportunities for a Key Enabler of the Clean Energy Transition
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 Preface to Special Collection: "Renewable Energy Technologies and Systems"
Bett, Andreas W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Sustainable PV Manufacturing Solutions for relaunching the European PV Manufacturing Industry
Brailovsky, Peter; Friedrich, Lorenz; Nold, Sebastian; Riepe, Stephan; Rentsch, Jochen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Sustainability strategies for PV: Framework, status and needs
Gervais, Estelle; Herceg, Sina; Nold, Sebastian; Weiß, Karl-Anders
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Rückenwind für die Solarindustrie in Deutschland und Europa
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 Expert Input Paper - Eco-Design & Energy Labelling for Photovoltaic Modules, Inverters and Systems in the EU
Wade, Andreas; Neuhaus, Holger; Sauer, Thomas; Probst, Leonhard; Moser, David; Rohr, Carsten; Rossi, Raffaele
Bericht
Report
2021 Photovoltaik und die Energiewende
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 Energy Payback Time of Photovoltaic Electricity generated by Passivated Emitter Rear and Rear Cell (PERC) Solar Modules: A Novel Methodology Proposal
Salibi, Marc; Schönberger, F.; Makolli, Qendresa; Bousi, Erion; Almajali, S.; Friedrich, Lorenz
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 Materialinnovationen für die Solarenergie
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 Evolutionary algorithm optimizes screen design for solar cell metallization
Tepner, Sebastian; Ney, Linda; Singler, Marius; Pospischil, Maximilian; Masuri, K.; Clement, Florian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Technological Learning for Resource Efficient Terawatt Scale Photovoltaics
Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Wagner, Lukas; Pietzcker, R.; Friedrich, Lorenz
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 High-Speed Video Analysis of the Process Dynamics in Screen Printed Metallization of Si-Solar Cells
Tepner, Sebastian; Singler, Marius; Zhang, Chongfeng; Ney, Linda; Gensowski, Katharina; Siebenhaar, Frederic; Feng, Jiwei; Xiao, Qiayan; Guo, Kangkang; Cuiwen Guo, Tracy; Lorenz, Andreas; Pospischil, Maximilian; Clement, Florian
Vortrag
Presentation
2020 Photovoltaic Technology: From R&D to Industry
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2020 A European proficiency test on thin‐film tandem photovoltaic devices
Salis, Elena; Gerber, A.; Andreasen, J.W.; Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Betts, Thomas R.; Mihaylov, B.; Gottschalg, Ralph; Kodolbas, A.O.; Yilmaz, O.; Leidl, Roman; Rennhofer, M.; Zamini, S.; Acciarri, M.; Binetti, S.; Lotter, E.; Bakker, K.; Kroon, Jan M.; Soppe, W.; Razongles, G.; Mercaldo, L.V.; Roca, F.; Romano, A.; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Warta, Wilhelm; Balenzategui, Jose L.; Trigo, J.F.; Neubert, S.; Pavanello, D.; Müllejans, Harald; Lauermann, I.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Solar cell efficiency tables (version 56)
Green, Martin A.; Dunlop, Ewan D.; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Yoshita, M.; Kopidakis, N.; Hao, X.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Early Stage Quality Assesment in Silicon Ingots from MDP Brick Characterization
Kovvali, Aditya Sai; Demant, Matthias; Rebba, B.; Schüler, N.; Haunschild, Jonas; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Plating on TOPCon as a Way to Reduce the Fabrication Costs of i-TOPCon Solar Cells
Steinhauser, Bernd; Grübel, Benjamin; Nold, Sebastian; Arya, Varun; Schmiga, Christian; Kluska, Sven; Brand, Andreas; Feldmann, Frank; Bay, Norbert; Gay, X.; Passig, M.; Glatthaar, Markus
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 The International Technology Roadmap for Photovoltaics and the Significance of it's Decade-Long Projections
Baliozan, Puzant; Tepner, Sebastian; Fischer, Marie; Trube, J.; Herritsch, S.; Gensowski, Katharina; Clement, Florian; Nold, Sebastian; Preu, Ralf
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 FoilMet® - Connect: A New Rear Metallization Upgrade for PERC and other Cell Concepts
Paschen, Jan; Emanuel, Gernot; Brand, Andreas; Fellmeth, Tobias; De Rose, Angela; John, Oliver; Nekarda, Jan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Digitalisierung bei der Produktion von Solar- und Batteriezellen
Preu, Ralf; Rein, Stefan; Zimmer, Martin; Fleischer, J.; Weinmann, Hannes; Hofmann, J.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Techno-Economic Analysis of Half-Cell Modules - the Impact of Half-Cells on Module Power and Costs
Mittag, Max; Pfreundt, Andrea; Shahid, Jibran; Wöhrle, Nico; Neuhaus, Dirk Holger
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 PV Manufacturing in Europe - the 10 GWp GreenFab Initative
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2018 Status and Technology Innovation for Wafer Production
Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2018 Improvement of Solar Cell Efficiencies for Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Contact Opening with Ni-Cu Plated Contacts by Optimized LCO-FFO Processing Order
Arya, Varun; Gutscher, Simon; Kluska, Sven; Meyer, Fabian; Cimiotti, Gisela; Nekarda, Jan; Brand, Andreas
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Projection accuracy and deviations
Baliozian, Puzant
Aufsatz in Buch
Book Article
2018 Digitalisierung bei der Produktion von Solar- und Batteriezellen
Preu, Ralf; Rein, Stefan; Zimmer, Martin; Fleischer, J.; Weinmann, Hannes; Hofmann, J.
Vortrag
Presentation
2016 Photovoltaic Development Standardizing Based on Roadmaps and Technology Readiness Levels
Baliozan, Puzant; Mourad, S.; Morse, D.; Kim, S.; Friedrich, Lorenz; Preu, Ralf
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
Diese Liste ist ein Auszug aus der Publikationsplattform Fraunhofer-Publica

This list has been generated from the publication platform Fraunhofer-Publica