Metrology and Simulation

Our work in the research topic "Metrology and Simulation" is characterized by our expertise in the analysis of solar cells and modules, based on our many years of experience in the fields of technology and metrology and physics. We have detailed knowledge of solar cell structures and physics, metrological concepts and simulation methods, as well as extensive data collections on solar cell parameters. In addition, we use powerful machine learning and artificial intelligence approaches for data analysis.  

Our work focuses on the development of measuring devices and analysis methods to improve materials, solar cells and modules and to optimize inspection and quality assurance in production. We develop solutions together with and for measurement technology and sensor manufacturers, material, cell and module manufacturers, providers of data analysis systems and research institutes.  

We offer solutions in the areas of quality assurance, automated process and production control, measurement method and measurement system development, material and cell analysis, simulation and modeling, as well as automated data analysis and image processing/artificial intelligence. We offer certified solar cell measurements in our independent and accredited calibration laboratory CalLab PV Cells.

Fields of Work

In the research topic "Metrology and Simulation" we focus on the following fields of work:

Simulation and Modeling of Cells and Modules

Process Simulation

Measurement Methods for Material and Process Analyses

Measurement Methods for Cell Analysis

Measurement Methods for Module Analysis

R&D Infrastructure

At Fraunhofer ISE, we benefit from this infrastructure for our research and development activities:

CalLab PV Cells

Certified Measurements

Precise measurement of solar cells and modules is of crucial importance in photovoltaics. The photovoltaic calibration laboratory "CalLab PV Cells" at Fraunhofer ISE is one of the leading laboratories worldwide in this field. We measure all types of solar cells and PV modules precisely and reliably in accordance with international standard.

 

Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center – PV-TEC

Inline Measurement Technology

For wafer, process and cell inspection, high-performance and highly flexible inline measuring machines are available, which are equipped with extensive, mostly imaging measurement technology for the electrical and optical characterization of wafers and cells and enable the processing of a wide range of wafer/cell formats at high throughput, including wafer-specific measurement data assignment via active or virtual wafer tracking. The systems provide efficient and precise analyses for checking quality and performance. Our customers benefit from meaningful data that supports them in optimizing their solar cell production and creates the data basis for inline loss analysis.

Offline Analysis Methods

Our analysis methods for determining the causes of material and cell losses include global, camera-based and local methods with high spatial resolution. In addition to commercially available measurement systems, we use methods developed and refined in-house that overcome the limitations of conventional approaches. With our innovative analysis techniques, we provide precise insights into the causes of losses, enabling targeted measures to improve components in research and production. 

 

Simulation Methods, Data Analysis

Our work includes the use of powerful simulation tools such as Sentaurus TCAD for detailed modeling of solar cell physics. We work with the Quokka3 simulation software to model entire solar cells and have a large number of our own simulation and evaluation tools for quantitative cell analysis. We develop customized approaches for solar cell analysis in the fields of machine learning, automated image recognition and artificial intelligence. These enable efficient data analysis and process optimization, which we offer our customers as tailor-made solutions.

Selected Research Projects

 

KATANA

Calibration of Large-Area Tandem Solar Cells and Modules for Industrial Perovskite Silicon Market Entry

Current Publications on the Topic "Metrology and Simulation"

Jahr
Year
Titel/Autor:in
Title/Author
Publikationstyp
Publication Type
2024 Stability of industrial gallium-doped Czochralski silicon PERC cells and wafers
Niewelt, Tim; Maischner, Felix; Kwapil, Wolfram; Khorani, Edris; Pain, Sophie L.; Jung, Yujin; Hopkins, Eduard C. B.; Frosch, Manfred; Altermatt, Pietro P.; Guo, Harry; Wang, Yuchin; Grant, Nicholas E.; Murphy, John D.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2024 The Impact of Measurement Conditions on Solar Cell Efficiency
Rauer, Michael; Fell, Andreas; Wöhler, Wilkin; Hinken, David; Reichel, Christian; Bothe, Karsten; Schubert, Martin; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2024 Towards More Reliable Measurement Procedures of Perovskite-Silicon Tandem Solar Cells: The Role of Transient Device Effects and Measurement Conditions
Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Chojniak, David; Bett, Alexander J.; Reichmuth, Kasimir; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Bivour, Martin; Hermle, Martin; Schön, Jonas; Schubert, Martin; Glunz, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2024 Solar degradation and stability of lead-free light absorber Cs2AgBiBr6 in ambient conditions
Jöckel, Dennis Michael; Yoon, Songhak; Frebel, Alexander; Meles Neguse, Samuel; Rossa, Jürgen Dieter; Bett, Alexander J.; Schubert, Martin; Wiedenmeyer, Marc; Balke-Grünewald, Benjamin; Weidenkaff, Anke
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Measurement of Local Recombination Activity in High Diffusion Length Semiconductors
Heinz, Friedemann; Oezkent, Maximilian; Rittmann, Clara; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin; Kwapil, Wolfram; Glunz, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Spectrometric Characterization for Triple-Junction Solar Cells
Aulich, Johanna; Chojniak, David; Bett, Alexander J.; Steiner, Marc; Schindler, Florian; Siefer, Gerald; Schubert, Martin; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Glunz, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Comparing MDP, QSSPC and PL Imaging for the Production Control of Heterojunction Solar Cells
Diestel, Christian; Senthil Kumar, Saravana Kumar; Schüler, Nadine; Leonhardt, Marcel; Haunschild, Jonas; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2023 IV Measurements of Shingle Solar Cells
Krieg, Alexander; Ramspeck, Klaus; Wöhrle, Nico; Kunze, Philipp; Rauer, Michael; Fell, Andreas; Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan
Poster
2023 A Self-Consistent Hybrid Model Connects Empirical and Optical Models for Fast, Non-Destructive Inline Characterization of Thin, Porous Silicon Layers
Wörnhör, Alexandra; Vahlman, Henri; Demant, Matthias; Rein, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 On the Conversion Between Recombination Rates and Electronic Defect Parameters in Semiconductors
Juhl, Mattias K.; Heinz, Friedemann; Coletti, Gianluca; Rougieux, Fiacre; Sun, Chang; Vacqueiro Contreras, Michelle; Niewelt, Tim; Krich, Jacob; Schubert, Martin
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 High Lifetime Ga-doped Cz-Si for Carrier-Selective Junction Solar Cells
Horzel, Jörg; Mack, Sebastian; Voicu Vulcanean, Ioan; Zimmermann, Karin; Pingel, Sebastian; Kwapil, Wolfram; Maischner, Felix; Höffler, Hannes; Bashardoust, Sattar; Wagenmann, Dirk; Greulich, Johannes; Seif, Johannes; Steinmetz, Anamaria; Rentsch, Jochen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Contactless Inline IV Measurement of Solar Cells Using an Empirical Model
Kunze, Philipp; Greulich, Johannes; Tummalieh, Ammar; Wirtz, Wiebke; Höffler, Hannes; Wöhrle, Nico; Glunz, Stefan; Rein, Stefan; Demant, Matthias
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 IV Measurements of Shingle Solar Cells
Krieg, Alexander; Ramspeck, Klaus; Wöhrle, Nico; Kunze, Philipp; Rauer, Michael; Fell, Andreas; Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2023 Understanding Current Paths and Temprature Distributions during 'Laser Enhanced Contact Optimization' (LECO)
Höffler, Hannes; Simon, Felix; Krassowski, Eve; Greulich, Johannes
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2023 Hydrogen Reactions in c-Si:B During Illumination at Room Temperature
Kwapil, Wolfram; Hammann, Benjamin
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Maximizing Current Density in Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells
Heydarian, Minasadat; Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Bett, Alexander J.; Heydarian, Maryamsadat; Chojniak, David; Kabakli, Özde Seyma; Tutsch, Leonard; Bivour, Martin; Siefer, Gerald; Schubert, Martin; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan; Schulze, Patricia
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Next Generation High-Throughput Cell Production Technologies: Impact on Equipment CAPEX, Footprint, and Labour Requirements
Goraya, Baljeet Singh; Georgiou-Sarlikiotis, Vasileios; Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Wolf, Andreas; Zimmer, Martin; Klawitter, Markus; Lorenz, Andreas; Ourinson, Daniel; Schneider, Jale; Greulich, Johannes; Emanuel, Gernot; Clement, Florian; Nold, Sebastian
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 Overview of key results achieved in H2020 HighLite project helping to raise the EU PV industries' competitiveness
Tous, Loïc; Govaert, Jonathan; Harrison, Samuel; Carrière, Carolyn; Barth, Vincent; Giglia, Valentin; Buchholz, Florian; Chen, Ning; Halm, Andreas; Faes, Antonin; Nogay, Gizem; Quest, Hugo; Rößler, Torsten; Fellmeth, Tobias; Reinwand, Dirk; Stolzenburg, Hannah; Schindler, Florian; Mittag, Max; Morlier, Arnaud; Bokalič, Matevž; Brecl, Kristijan; Kikelj, Miha; Topic, Marko; Kester, Josco C.P.; Wendlandt, Stefan; Galiazzo, Marco; Voltan, Alessandro; Galbiati, Giuseppe; Ortiga, Marc Estruga; Torregrosa, Frank; Grimm, Michael; Denafas, Julius; Radavičius, Tadas; Lukinskas, Povilas; Savisalo, Tuukka; Regrettier, Thomas; Gordon, Ivan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Quantifying Surface Recombination - Improvements in Determination and Simulation of the Surface Recombination Parameter J0s
Hammann, Benjamin; Steinhauser, Bernd; Fell, Andreas; Post, Regina; Niewelt, Tim; Kwapil, Wolfram; Wolf, Andreas; Richter, Armin; Höffler, Hannes; Schubert, Martin
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 A Grain Orientation-Independent Single-Step Saw Damage Gettering/Wet texturing Process for Efficient Silicon Solar Cells
Jung, Yujin; Min, Kwan Hong; Post, Regina; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schubert, Martin; Kim, Donghwan; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Sok
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Every Cell Needs a Beautiful Image: On-The-Fly Contacting Measurements for High-Throughput Production
Kurumundayil, Leslie Lydia; Ramspeck, Klaus; Rein, Stefan; Demant, Matthias
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Process influences on LeTID in Ga-doped silicon
Maischner, Felix; Kwapil, Wolfram; Greulich, Johannes; Jung, Yujin; Höffler, Hannes; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Schubert, Martin; Rein, Stefan; Glunz, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Understanding the Impact of the Cooling Ramp of the Fast-Firing Process on Light- and Elevated-Temperature-Induced Degradation
Hammann, Benjamin; Aßmann, Nicole; Schön, Jonas; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schindler, Florian; Roder, Sebastian; Monakhov, Eduard V.; Schubert, Martin
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 The Impact of Different Hydrogen Configurations on Light- and Elevated-Temperature-Induced Degradation
Hammann, Benjamin; Assmann, Nicole; Weiser, Philip M.; Kwapil, Wolfram; Niewelt, Tim; Schindler, Florian; Søndenå, Rune; Monakhov, Eduard V.; Schubert, Martin
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Inline Characterization of Ultrathin Amorphous Silicon Stacks in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Precursors with Differential Reflectance Spectroscopy
Senthil Kumar, Saravana Kumar; Vahlman, Henri; Al-Hajjawi, Saed; Diestel, Christian; Haunschild, Jonas; Rupitsch, Stefan; Rein, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 LeTID Stability Tests on Gallium-Doped Industrial PERC Cells and Wafers
Niewelt, Tim; Maischner, Felix; Khorani, Edris; Pain, Sophie; Grant, Nicholas E.; Kwapil, Wolfram; Altermatt, Pietro P.; Murphy, John D.
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 Spectrometric Characterization of Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells
Bett, Alexander J.; Chojniak, David; Schachtner, Michael; Reichmuth, Kasimir; Kabakli, Özde Seyma; Schulze, Patricia; Fischer, Oliver; Schindler, Florian; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Siefer, Gerald; Schubert, Martin
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Next Generation High Throughput Production Processes & Inline Characterization for Si Solar Cells
Clement, Florian; Meßmer, Marius; Höffler, Hannes; Ourinson, Daniel; Goraya, Baljeet Singh; Emanuel, Gernot; Meyer, Fabian; Lorenz, Andreas; Bartsch, Jonas; Demant, Matthias; Nold, Sebastian; Wolf, Andreas; Zimmer, Martin; Greulich, Johannes; Preu, Ralf; Köpge, Ringo; Ramspeck, Klaus; Hemsendorf, Marc; Straub, Benedikt; Ebert , Christian; Drews, Matthias; Jooss, Wolfgang; Schmid, Elina; Schönfelder, Stephan
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 Si-Epitaxy with Mixtures of Trichlorosilane and Silicon Tetrachloride Precursors at Different Temperatures
Drießen, Marion; Meyer, Tom; Ohnemus, Markus; Messmer, Pascal; Sorgenfrei, Ralf; Schindler, Florian; Weiss, Charlotte; Janz, Stefan
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 Understanding Contact Nonuniformities at Interfaces in Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells Using Luminescence Imaging, Lock-In Thermography, and 2D/3D Simulations
Fischer, Oliver; Fell, Andreas; Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Efinger, Raphael; Schindler, Florian; Glunz, Stefan; Schubert, Martin
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Spectrometric Determination of Current Matching in Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells
Bett, Alexander J.; Chojniak, David; Schachtner, Michael; Reichmuth, Kasimir; Schulze, Patricia; Kabakli, Özde Seyma; Heydarian, Minasadat; King, Hunter; Sittinger, Volker; Schindler, Florian; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Siefer, Gerald; Bett, Andreas W.; Schubert, Martin
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2023 LeTID in PERC Cells from Gallium-Doped Czochralski Silicon: Extent, Accelerated Testing and Mitigation via an Adapted Firing Process
Maischner, Felix; Greulich, Johannes; Kwapil, Wolfram; Ourinson, Daniel; Glunz, Stefan; Rein, Stefan
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 Monolithic Two-Terminal Perovskite/Perovskite/Silicon Triple-Junction Solar Cells with Open Circuit Voltage > 2.8 V
Heydarian, Maryamsadat; Heydarian, Minasadat; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Schindler, Florian; Hermle, Martin; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia; Borchert, Anna Juliane; Glunz, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Comparing MDP, QSSPC and PL Imaging for the Production Control of Heterojunction Solar Cells
Diestel, Christian; Senthil Kumar, Saravana Kumar; Schüler, Nadine; Leonhardt, Marcel; Haunschild, Jonas; Rein, Stefan
Poster
2023 Spatially Resolved and Subcell-Selective Implied Open-Circuit Voltage Measurements on Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells
Fischer, Oliver; Bui, Anh Dinh; Schindler, Florian; Macdonald, Daniel; Glunz, Stefan; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Schubert, Martin
Vortrag
Presentation
2023 Spatially Resolved Power Conversion Efficiency for Perovskite Solar Cells via Bias-Dependent Photoluminescence Imaging
Bui, Anh Dinh; Nguyen, Dang-Thuan; Fell, Andreas; Mozaffari, Naeimeh; Ahmad, Viqar; Duong, The; Li, Li; Truong, Thien N.; Wibowo, Ary Anggara; Nguyen, Nhat Dang Khoa; Fischer, Oliver; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin; Weber, Klaus J.; White, Thomas P.; Catchpole, Kylie R.; Catchpole, Kylie R.; Macdonald, Daniel; Nguyen, Hieu T.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Epitaxially Grown p-type Silicon Wafers Ready for Cell Efficiencies Exceeding 25%
Rittmann, Clara; Schindler, Florian; Richter, Armin; Niewelt, Tim; Stolzenburg, Hannah; Steinhauser, Bernd; Dalke, Jonas; Drießen, Marion; Weiss, Charlotte; Janz, Stefan; Schubert, Martin
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 LeTID mitigation via an adapted firing process in p-type PERC cells from SMART cast-monocrystalline, Czochralski and high-performance multicrystalline silicon
Maischner, Felix; Maus, Stephan; Greulich, Johannes M.; Lohmüller, Sabrina; Lohmüller, Elmar; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Ourinson, Daniel; Vahlman, Henri; Hergert, K.; Riepe, Stephan; Glunz, Stefan W.; Rein, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Lessons learned from 25 years production technology research & development
Preu, Ralf; Rentsch, Jochen; Rein, Stefan; Clement, Florian; Nekarda, Jan; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Lohmüller, Sabrina; Lohmüller, Elmar; Greulich, Johannes; Wöhrle, Nico; Mack, Sebastian; Wolf, Andreas; Pingel, Sebastian; Steinmetz, Anamaria; Baliozian, Puzant; Goraya, Baljeet Singh; Nold, Sebastian; Glunz, Stefan; Bett, Andreas W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Monolithic 2-Terminal Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells
Schulze, Patricia; Kabakli, Özde Seyma; Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Heydarian, Minasadat; Er-Raji, Oussama; Heydarian, Maryamsadat; Efinger, Raphael; Schultz-Wittmann, Oliver; Fischer, Oliver; Bett, Alexander J.; Tutsch, Leonard; Pingel, Sebastian; Schubert, Martin; Hatt, Thibaud; Erath, Denis; Bivour, Martin; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Glunz, Stefan; Hermle, Martin
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 R&D Project NextTec - Next Generation High Throughput Production Processes & Inline Characterization for Si Solar Cells
Clement, Florian; Meßmer, Marius; Höffler, Hannes; Ourinson, Daniel; Goraya, Baljeet Singh; Emanuel, Gernot; Meyer, Fabian; Lorenz, Andreas; Bartsch, Jonas; Demant, Matthias; Nold, Sebastian; Wolf, Andreas; Zimmer, Martin; Preu, Ralf; Ramspeck, Klaus; Hemsendorf, Marc; Straub, Benedikt; Ebert , Christan; Drews, Matthias; Joos, Wolfgang; Schmid, Elina; Schönfelder, Stephan; Koepge, Ringo
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Low-Budget Photoluminescence Imaging
Greulich, Johannes; Brand, Andreas; Höffler, Hannes; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 High Lifetime Ga-Doped Cz-Si for Carrier Selective Junction Solar Cells
Horzel, Jörg; Mack, Sebastian; Voicu Vulcanean, Ioan; Zimmermann, Karin; Pingel, Sebastian; Kwapil, Wolfram; Maischner, Felix; Höffler, Hannes; Bashardoust, Sattar; Wagenmann, Dirk; Greulich, Johannes; Seif, Johannes; Steinmetz, Anamaria; Rentsch, Jochen
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Combining drift-diffusion and equivalent-circuit models for efficient 3D tandem solar cell simulations
Fell, Andreas; Schultz-Wittmann, Oliver; Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Schubert, Martin; Glunz, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Assessing Current-Voltage Measurements of Busbarless Solar Cells
Rauer, Michael; Krieg, Alexander; Fell, Andreas; Pingel, Sebastian; Wöhrle, Nico; Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan; Schubert, Martin; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Enlarged Firing Window and Efficiency Boosting of PERC Solar Cells by 'Laser Enhanced Contact Optimization' (LECO)
Höffler, Hannes; Fellmeth, Tobias; Maischner, Felix; Greulich, Johannes; Krassowski, Eve; Henning, Andreas
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Towards accurate atom scale characterisation of hydrogen passivation of interfaces in TOPCon architectures
Shi, Yifu; Jones, Megan E.; Meier, Martin S.; Wright, Matthew; Polzin, Jana-Isabelle; Kwapil, Wolfram; Fischer, Christian; Schubert, Martin C.; Grovenor, Chris; Moody, Michael; Bonilla, Ruy S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Epitaxially grown p-type silicon wafers ready for cell efficiencies exceeding 25 %
Rittmann, Clara; Dalke, Jonas; Richter, Armin; Steinhauser, Bernd; Drießen, Marion; Weiss, Charlotte; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin; Janz, Stefan; Niewelt, Tim; Stolzenburg, Hannah
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Laser-enhanced Contact Optimization on iTOPCon Solar Cells
Fellmeth, Tobias; Höffler, Hannes; Mack, Sebastian; Krassowski, Eve; Krieg, Katrin; Kafle, Bishal; Greulich, Johannes
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Inline Characterization of Stacking Faults in EpiWafers
Al-Hajjawi, Saed; Haunschild, Jonas; Wörnhör, Alexandra; Sorgenfrei, Ralf; Schremmer, Hans; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Upscaling of Perovskite-Silicon Tandem Solar Cells
Schultz-Wittmann, Oliver; Schulze, Patricia; Er-Raji, Oussama; Efinger, Raphael; Kabakli, Özde Seyma; Heydarian, Maryamsadat; Mc Mullin, Kaitlyn; Fischer, Oliver; Bett, Alexander J.; Erath, Denis; Pingel, Sebastian; Heitmann, Ulrike; Kiaee, Zohreh; Kohlstädt, Markus; Kore, Bhushan; Nagel, Henning; Schubert, Martin; Bivour, Martin; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Borchert, Anna Juliane; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Learning an Empirical Digital Twin from Measurement Images for a Comprehensive Quality Inspection of Solar Cells
Kunze, Philipp; Rein, Stefan; Hemsendorf, M.; Ramspeck, K.; Demant, Matthias
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Lessons Learned From 25 Years Production Technology Research & Development
Preu, Ralf; Rentsch, Jochen; Rein, Stefan; Clement, Florian; Nekarda, Jan; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Lohmüller, Elmar; Lohmüller, Sabrina; Greulich, Johannes; Wöhrle, Nico; Pingel, Sebastian; Steinmetz, Anamaria; Baliozian, Puzant; Nold, Sebastian; Goraya, Baljeet Singh; Glunz, Stefan; Bett, Andreas W.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Identification of the LeTID Defect Formation as a Hydrogen-Related Dissociation Process
Hammann, Benjamin; Rachdi, Lazhar; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Current-voltage characteristics of silicon solar cells: Determination of Base Doping Concentration and Hysteresis Correction
Kemmer, Tobias; Greulich, Johannes; Krieg, Alexander; Rein, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 21.4% Efficient SMART mono-Si PERC Solar Cells with Adapted Firing Process for LeTID Mitigation
Maischner, Felix; Maus, Stephan; Greulich, Johannes; Lohmüller, Sabrina; Lohmüller, Elmar; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Ourinson, Daniel; Hergert, Karin; Riepe, Stephan; Glunz, Stefan; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Monitoring of Porous Silicon Layers Used for Epitaxial Wafer Production with Inline Reflectance Spectroscopy
Vahlman, Henri Johannes; Al-Hajjawi, Saed; Haunschild, Jonas; Wöhrle, Nico; Richter, Maxi; Jablonka, Lukas; Schremmer, Hans; Rein, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Assessing Current-Voltage Measurements of Busbarless Solar Cells
Rauer, Michael; Krieg, Alexander; Pingel, Sebastian; Fell, Andreas; Wöhrle, Nico; Greulich, Johannes; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Rein, Stefan
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Monolithic 2-Terminal Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells
Schulze, Patricia; Kabakli, Özde Seyma; McMullin, Kaitlyn; Heydarian, Minasadat; Er-Raji, Oussama; Heydarian, Maryamsadat; Efinger, Raphael; Schultz-Wittmann, Oliver; Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Bett, Alexander J.; Fischer, Oliver; Tutsch, Leonard; Erath, Denis; Pingel, Sebastian; Hatt, Thibaud; Schubert, Martin; Bivour, Martin; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Monolithic 2-Terminal Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells
Schulze, Patricia; Kabakli, Özde Seyma; Bivour, Martin; Heydarian, Minasadat; Er-Raji, Oussama; Heydarian, Maryamsadat; Efinger, Raphael; Schultz-Wittmann, Oliver; Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Bett, Alexander J.; Fischer, Oliver; Tutsch, Leonard; Erath, Denis; Pingel, Sebastian; Hatt, Thibaud; Schubert, Martin; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Inline-Feasible Contrast Separation in Luminescence Imaging for Silicon Solar Cells
Dost, Georg; Höffler, Hannes; Greulich, Johannes
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Contactless Measurement of Current-Voltage Characteristics for Silicon Solar Cells
Greulich, Johannes; Wirtz, Wiebke; Höffler, Hannes; Wöhrle, Nico; Juhl, Matthias K.; Kunz, Oliver; Rein, Stefan; Bett, Andreas W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Carrier Lifetime Limitation of Industrial Ga-Doped Cz-Grown Silicon after Different Solar Cell Process Flows
Post, Regina; Niewelt, Tim; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Microscopic Charge Carrier Lifetime Mapping for Silicon Material Analysis
Heinz, Friedemann; Oezkent, Maximilian; Rittmann, Clara; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin; Kwapil, Wolfram; Glunz, Stefan
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Spectrometric Determination of Current Matching in Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells
Bett, Alexander J.; Chojniak, David; Schachtner, Michael; Reichmuth, Kasimir; Schulze, Patricia; Kabakli, Özde Seyma; Schindler, Florian; Heydarian, Maryamsadat; King, Hunter; Sittinger, Volker; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen; Siefer, Gerald; Bett, Andreas W.; Schubert, Martin
Vortrag
Presentation
2022 Efficient Charge Carrier Extraction in Perovskite-Silicon Tandem Solar Cells Investigated by Numerical Simulation
Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Schön, Jonas; Würfel, Uli; Schulze, Patricia; Schubert, Martin; Bivour, Martin; Glunz, Stefan; Hermle, Martin
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 Thermal Activation of Hydrogen for Defect Passivation in poly-Si Based Passivating Contacts
Polzin, Jana-Isabelle; Hammann, Benjamin; Niewelt, Tim; Kwapil, Wolfram; Hermle, Martin; Feldmann, Frank
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Efficiency Potential Analysis of p- and n-Type Epitaxially Grown Si Wafers
Rittmann, Clara; Dalke, Jonas; Drießen, Marion; Weiss, Charlotte; Schindler, Florian; Sorgenfrei, Ralf; Schubert, Martin C.; Janz, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 High-intensity illumination treatments against LeTID - Intensity and temperature dependence of stability and inline feasibility
Vahlman, Henri; Roder, Sebastian; Nekarda, Jan; Rein, Stefan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 The Potential of Cast Silicon
Schubert, Martin C.; Schindler, Florian; Benick, Jan; Riepe, Stephan; Krenckel, Patricia; Richter, Armin; Müller, Ralph; Hammann, Benjamin; Nold, Sebastian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 SMART Cast-Monocrystalline p-Type Silicon Passivated Emitter and Rear Cells: Efficiency Benchmark and Bulk Lifetime Analysis
Maus, Stephan; Maischner, Felix; Riepe, Stephan; Greulich, Johannes M.; Lohmüller, Elmar; Schindler, Florian; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Krenckel, Patricia; Hess, A.; Lohmüller, Sabrina; Wolf, Andreas; Preu, Ralf
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Spectroscopic Inline Characterisation of Partially Processed Epi Wafers after Porosification
Al-Hajjawi, Saed; Vahlman, Henri; Haunschild, Jonas; Rajagopalan, Shravan Kumar; Schremmer, Hans; Jablonka, L.; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 Gallium-Doped Silicon for High-Efficiency Commercial Passivated Emitter and Rear Solar Cells
Grant, N.E.; Altermatt, Pietro P.; Niewelt, Tim; Post, Regina; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schubert, Martin C.; Murphy, J.D.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Monolithic 2-terminal perovskite silicon tandem solar cells
Schulze, Patricia; Kabakli, Özde Seyma; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Efinger, Raphael; Fett, Bastian; Hähnel, Angelika; Hagendorf, Christian; Herbig, Bettina; Heydarian, Maryamsadat; Heydarian, Minasadat; King, Hunter; Lange, Stefan; Luderer, Christoph; Meßmer, Christoph Alexander; Naumann, Volker; Penn, Michaela; Romero Sierra, Camila A.; Schubert, Martin; Sittinger, Volker; Tutsch, Leonard; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.; Bett, Andreas W.; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 Mitigation of LID and LeTID in photovoltaics - facets of hydrogen introduction
Niewelt, Tim; Kwapil, Wolfram; Hammann, Benjamin; Schön, Jonas; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin C.
Vortrag
Presentation
2021 Insights into the Hydrogen-Related Mechanism behind the Defect Formation during Light- and Elevated Temperature Induced Degradation
Hammann, Benjamin; Rachdi, Lazhar; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 The Empirical Digital Twin: Representation Learning on Solar Cell Images and Efficient Defect Detection with Human-in-the-Loop
Kunze, Philipp; Rein, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas; Hemsendorf, M.; Ramspeck, K.; Demant, Matthias
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 Influence of Dopant Elements on Degradation Phenomena in B- and Ga-Doped Czochralski-grown Silicon
Kwapil, Wolfram; Dalke, Jonas; Post, Regina; Niewelt, Tim
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Breakdown of temperature sensitivity of silicon solar cells by simulation input parameters
Eberle, Rebekka; Fell, Andreas; Schindler, Florian; Shahid, Jibran; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Propagation of Crystal Defects During Directional Solidification of Silicon via Induction of Functional Defects
Krenckel, Patricia; Hayama, Y.; Schindler, Florian; Trötschler, Theresa; Riepe, Stephan; Usami, N.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 The advent of modern solar-powered electric agricultural machinery: A solution for sustainable farm operations
Gorjian, S.; Ebadi, H.; Trommsdorff, Maximilian; Sharon, H.; Demant, Matthias; Schindele, Stephan
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Verfahren zur Verarbeitung von Abbildungen von Halbleiterstrukturen, sowie zur Prozesscharakterisierung und Prozessoptimierung mittels semantischer Datenkompression
Demant, Matthias; Rein, Stefan; Kovvali, Aditya Sai; Greulich, Johannes; Wöhrle, Nico
Patent
2020 Atom Probe Tomography Study of Gettering in High-Performance Multicrystalline Silicon
Tweddle, D.; Hamer, P.; Shen, Z.; Heinz, Friedemann D.; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Schindler, Florian; Wilshaw, Peter R.; Moody, M.P.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Machine Learning for Advanced Solar Cell Production. Adversarial Denoising, Sub-pixel Alignment and the Digital Twin
Demant, Matthias; Kurumundayil, Leslie Lydia; Kunze, Philipp; Woernhoer, A.; Kovvali, Aditya Sai; Rein, Stefan
Vortrag
Presentation
2020 Efficient Deployment of Deep Neural Networks for Quality Inspection of Solar Cells using Smart Labeling
Kunze, Philipp; Greulich, Johannes M.; Rein, Stefan; Ramspeck, K.; Hemsendorf, M.; Vetter, Andreas; Demant, Matthias
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 LeTID- and (Extended) BO-Related Degradation and Regeneration in B- and Ga-Doped Monocrystalline Silicon during Dark and Illuminated Anneals
Kwapil, Wolfram; Dalke, Jonas; Niewelt, Tim; Schubert, Martin C.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 The Crystal Growth Explorer: Real-Time Navigable 3D Visualization of Silicon Grains and Defect Related Data in Cast-Mono and Multicrystalline Bricks
Schönauer, J.; Demant, Matthias; Trötschler, Theresa; Kovvali, Aditya Sai; Schremmer, H.; Krenckel, Patricia; Riepe, Stephan; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 High-Precision Alignment Procedures for Patterning Processes in Solar Cell Production
Lohmüller, Elmar; Weber, Julian; Demant, Matthias; Lohmüller, Sabrina; Gutscher, Simon; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Wolf, Andreas
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Comparing Microwave Detected Photoconductance, Quasi Steady State Photoconductance and Photoluminiscence Imaging for Iron Analysis in Silicon
Pengerla, M.; Al-Hajjawi, Saed; Kuruganti, V.; Haunschild, Jonas; Schüler, N.; Dornich, K.; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Temporary Recovery of the Defect Responsible for Light- and Elevated Temperature-Induced Degradation: Insights into the Physical Mechanisms behind LeTID
Kwapil, Wolfram; Schön, Jonas; Niewelt, Tim; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Evaluation of Inline High-Intensity Illumination Treatments against LeTID
Vahlman, Henri; Roder, Sebastian; Krauß, Karin; Nekarda, Jan; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Comparison of Inline Crack Detection Systems for Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Greulich, Johannes M.; Demant, Matthias; Kunze, Philipp; Dost, Georg; Ramspeck, K.; Vetter, A.; Probst, C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Early Stage Quality Assesment in Silicon Ingots from MDP Brick Characterization
Kovvali, Aditya Sai; Demant, Matthias; Rebba, B.; Schüler, N.; Haunschild, Jonas; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Assessment of Influencing Factors on Lifetime-Based Defect Analysis
Post, Regina; Niewelt, Tim; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schubert, Martin C.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Review and Recent Development in Combining Photoluminescence- and Electroluminescence-Imaging with Carrier Lifetime Measurements via Modulated Photoluminescence at Variable Temperatures
Höffler, Hannes; Schindler, Florian; Brand, Andreas; Herrmann, D.; Eberle, Rebekka; Post, Regina; Kessel, A.; Greulich, Johannes M.; Schubert, Martin C.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Limiting Defects in n-Type Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Schubert, Martin C.; Schindler, Florian; Schön, Jonas; Kwapil, Wolfram; Benick, Jan; Müller, Ralph; Heinz, Friedemann D.; Fell, Andreas; Riepe, Stephan; Morishige, A.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Sorting Criteria for Bifacial PERC Cells for Improved Module Classification
Wöhrle, Nico; Alapont Sabater, Aina; Krieg, Alexander; Ramspeck, K.; Fellmeth, Tobias; Schmid, A.; Rein, Stefan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Contactless transient carrier spectroscopy and imaging technique using lock-in free carrier emission and absorption
Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Kwapil, Wolfram; Heinz, Friedemann D.; Siriwardhana, Manjula; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Suns-ILIT: Contact-Less Determination of Local solar Cell Current-Voltage Characteristics
Kwapil, Wolfram; Wasmer, Sven; Fell, Andreas; Greulich, Johannes M.; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Prediction of local temperature-dependent performance of silicon solar cells
Eberle, Rebekka; Fell, Andreas; Mägdefessel, Sven; Schindler, Florian; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
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