Solar module with wire-connected crystalline silicon solar cells

This cell connection technology reduces silver consumption, electrical resistance losses and optical reflectance losses.

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Colored modules for building integration

The special layer set-up allows a very high color saturation and a very good angular color stability to be reached. Compared to an uncoated cover glass, the loss of gen-erated solar power is only 7%.

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Flasher of CalLab PV Modules

For PV module manufacturers and power plant investors, it is crucial to know precisely the performance of their modules. The measurement uncertainty for calibration of PV Modules stands at unprecedented 1.3%.

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Quality assurance for PV modules and power plants

For PV power plants of all sizes, we offer individual, continuous quality assurance. The picture shows a 150 MW PV power plant in the Atacama Desert, Chile.

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Life-cycle analysis of modules: Decisive for the profitability of a PV power plant

With non-destructive analysis using Raman spectroscopy, we can draw conclusions about degradation and durability of modules and components.

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Thermography of a PV power plant

Thermography recording to detect modules with hot-spot effects.

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Facility for calibration of photovoltaic modules

Recently developed solar simulator and light-soaking units are used to prepare modules optimally for the calibration process at the accredited laboratory “CalLab PV Modules” at Fraunhofer ISE.

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Hot spot defect in a solar module

Overheated area of a solar cell caused by cell defects. The cause and extent of module damage can be analyzed and evaluated at Fraunhofer ISE.

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Photovoltaic Modules and Power Plants

Fields of work within the research topic Photovoltaic Modules and Power Plants


Module Technology

Development of interconnection and encapsulation technology, improvement of PV module efficiency, integrated modules for special applications


Module Calibration

Comprehensive and precise calibration and performance testing of PV modules in our accredited laboratory CalLab PV Modules


Service Life and
Failure Analysis

Detection of damage mechanisms in PV modules, quality and reliability tests according to international standards or to customized procedures


Photovoltaic Power Plants

Performance optimization and quality assurance from planning to the ongoing operation of a PV system


Building Integrated Photovoltaics

Building physics modeling, development and evaluation of building-integrated PV modules


Forecasting of Solar Irradiance and Power

Development of forecast models for the reliable prediction in different time and spacial scales


PV for Mobility

Yield assessment, module and system development for the transport sector 

Module technology transforms solar cells into durable products for safe operation in PV power plants. Our Module-TEC – Photovoltaic Module Technology Center is equipped with a wide range of modern processing and analytical platforms for connecting and laminating solar cells, especially for material testing, as well as developing products and processes. We apply measurement and simulation to analyze cell-to-module balances (CTM).

The reliability of modules is tested by the team in our accredited TestLab PV Modules for certification according to IEC 61215 and with respect to particular climatic loads and specific degradation risks. We support our clients in qualifying materials and offer comprehensive analyses of degradation and damage to modules. Highest accuracy is also offered by our accredited calibration laboratory, CalLab PV Modules, which is the internationally leading laboratory in this field, with its measurement uncertainty of better than 1.3 % for crystalline modules.

With the five phases of the Fraunhofer ISE quality cycle – development, engineering, procurement, commissioning and operation – we guarantee comprehensive quality control of PV power plant projects. We take site-specific and climatic factors into account to prepare accurate yield predictions and provide advice on the project-specific selection of high-quality components. We develop reliable, probabilistic methods to predict the performance of PV systems.

Based on our expertise in photovoltaics, building science and energy supplies for buildings, we offer solutions to integrate photovoltaics into the building envelope. Our team also develops customized solar modules for special applications such as integration into vehicles and consumer devices.

In our accredited Lab CalLab PV Modules at Fraunhofer ISE, we offer a comprehensive range of services in the field of Module Calibration and Performance Testing.

In the TestLab PV Modules, which was founded in 2006 by Fraunhofer ISE in Freiburg,  PV modules are tested according to IEC and European standards for design qualification and type approval.

© University of Freiburg.srp
  • Module-TEC
    The new Module Technology Center (Module-TEC) offers widespread possibilities for developing photovoltaic module technologies. It closes the gap between laboratory development and industrial production by allowing the processing of significant quantities and formats.

Selected Research Projects



Mosaic modules as photovoltaic design elements for solar facades



BIPV facade on a laboratory building: MWT pilot application within the scope of the RDemo demonstration project


CTM 100+

Improving module performance by analysis of cell-to-module losses with SmartCalc.CTM



Global load classification system for solar technical materials