The overriding aim behind transforming energy systems is to achieve drastic reductions in harmful CO2 emissions. This goal requires all aspects of energy conversion and use to be considered as a whole, taking into account all consumption sectors – private households, transportation, industry and commerce – and all energy sources. The growing use of non-adjustable, fluctuating renewable energy sources demands greater flexibility in complementary energy supply and energy use, increased utilization of different sized storage systems employing a variety of technologies, and overall improved cohesion between the different components within energy systems.
At Fraunhofer ISE, we have developed a range of diverse yet complementary modeling tools in order to produce detailed models of entire energy systems that are becoming ever more complex. Time increments of an hour or less are used so as to adequately log the interplay between the various components in their dynamic range. The models differ with respect to spatial resolution and the system limits observed. This allows specific questions from clients to be answered using the most suitable model. Communities and municipal utilities are interested in issues such as the implementation of community climate protection concepts from specific technical and economic viewpoints; we developed the KomMod model for precisely these cases. In contrast, the REMod (Renewable Energy Model) model focusses on national and cross-border energy systems, and on how they are being transformed. Additional models may address specific parts of a question, for example the interplay between renewable sources of power generation, distribution grids and storage systems. One thing all the models have in common is their use of high-performance optimizers to determine low cost overall solutions under specific constraints – e.g. maximum levels of energy-related CO2 emissions.
Our services comprise:
- Modeling of complex energy systems that work across a number of sectors and with multiple energy sources
- Optimization of supply structures, taking long-term cost developments into account
- Comparative analysis and optimization of the paths taken to transform energy systems
- Community, regional, country-based and cross-border studies
- Analysis of technologies to ascertain the likelihood of them being integrated into future energy systems and the conditions in which they could be used