Market Integration & Trading


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Input and Output of ENTIGRIS-Unit.

Central research topics·        

  • Economic analysis of energy supply concepts
  • Optimization of energy supply concepzs
  • Operation and interaction of technologies in industry and businesses
  • Structural and operational optimization as well as consultancy to regulatory topics

Background of model application

ENTIGRIS - Unit analyzes energy systems from an economic perspective taking ownership and net present value into account.

The model can be used to find operator models and business models for energy supply technologies (PV, CHP and others) as well as for storage technologies (e.g. batteries) at different scales and to analyze the optimal technology mix. The model can be applied to home storage systems, to hybrid energy systems for industrial companies but also to the analysis of demand-side management in households. Optionally, earnings from electricity sales at the electricity spot market or reserve market can be regarded. The model is able to find answers to questions such as:

  • Which energy generation and storage technologies should be installed at given demand and at what size?
  • How do generation technologies and storage technologies interact and do they complement each other?
  • Which energy supply concept is economically feasible?

The model ENTIGRIS – Unit therefore offers tailor-made solutions for various energy system constellations.

ENTIGRIS – Unit is characterized by the following features

  • Goal: Development of optimal energy supply concepts as well as business models for industrial companies, groups of buildings or single households
  • Temporal resolution: economic calculations yearly, operation 15 minute resolution
  • Type of model: optimization model for design and operation of energy technologies
  • Sectors: electricity
  • Programming language: General Algebraic Modeling Systems (GAMS), Solver: IBM ILOG CPLEX optimizer


  • Industry
  • Local municipal utilities
  • Energy supply utilities
  • Energy cooperatives
  • House owners and others


  • Store2Win project
  • Jülch, Verena; Thomsen, Jessica; Hartmann, Niklas; Junne, Tobias; Unterreiner, Lea; Arnold, Markus; Reith, Sören; Eltrop, Ludger; Wassermann, Sandra; Niederberger, Marlen (2016): Betreibermodelle für Stromspeicher – Ökonomisch-ökologische Analyse und Vergleich von Speichern in autonomen, dezentralen Netzen und für regionale und überregionale Versorgungsaufgaben. Endbericht des Projektes im Programm Lebensgrundlage Umwelt und ihre Sicherung (Land Baden-Württemberg).
  • Jülch, Verena; Arnold, Markus (2016): SmartQuarter – A Business Model for Electricity Storage Systems. Poster auf der International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (IRES), Düsseldorf, 03/2016. Posterpreis 3. Platz
  • Kost, Christoph; Eikenberg, Lukas; Thomsen, Jessica; Schlegl, Thomas (2014): Technology modelling of a PV-hybrid renewable energy power plant - Case study on industrial companies in Germany, Proceedings 29th EU-PVSEC; 22.-26. September 2014; Amsterdam.
  • Thomsen, Jessica; Roulland, Arnaud; Hartmann, Niklas (2015): Economic viability of smart grid technologies in households. In: Energy Economics Group (Hg.): IEWT 2015. "Energiesysteme im Wandel: Evolution oder Revolution?". 9. Internationale Energiewirtschaftstagung. Wien, 11.02.2015 - 13.02.2015. TU Wien.
  • Thomsen, Jessica; Jülch, Verena; Kost, Christoph (2015): Increase of PV Self-Consumption by DSM, EV and Battery Storage. Forthcoming proceedings 30th EU-PVSEC; 14.-18. September 2015; Hamburg.