Micro-structured surfaces

Scanning electron micrographs of the structured surfaces after different processing steps. A: Hexagonal pattern with a period of 8 µm in a positive photoresist after interference ithography. This structure is used as a master.

Surfaces: Conditioning, Passivation and Light-Trapping

The surface structure of a solar cell has a significant impact on its efficiency potential. For this reason, we work on various methods and technologies for conditioning and passivation, as well as on optimizing light trapping in silicon solar cells. The key areas of our work include:

Coatings:

  • Single and multilayer anti-reflection coatings
  • Dopant precursors and multifunctional coatings
  • Passivation coatings and coating systems (incl. SiNx, SiOx, SiCx, Al2O3)
  • Barrier layers


Dry etching:

  • Texturing (fluorochemistry, HCl)
  • Processes for conditioning prior to passivation as well as emitter optimization and removal
  • Patterning
  • Selective removal of dielectric layers

Selected Research Projects

 

MASSE

 

THESSO

Simultaneos Co-Diffusion Processes for n-Type Solar Cells

 

 

ForTes: OPTOS

Determination of Refelction and Absorption of Solar Cells with Surfaces Textured on Both Sides

 

 

 

Current publications - Surfaces: Conditioning, Passivation and Light-Trapping:

YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
2017Angle dependence of solar cells and modules: The role of cell texturization
Geisemeyer, I.; Tucher, N.; Müller, B.; Steinkemper, H.; Hohl-Ebinger, J.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2017Characterizing the degradation of PDMS stamps in nanoimprint lithography
Tucher, N.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Müller, C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2017Influence of surface preparation and cleaning on the passivation of boron diffused silicon surfaces for high efficiency photovoltaics
Ali, H.; Moldovan, A.; Mack, S.; Wilson, M.; Schoenfeld, W.V.; Davis, K.O.
Journal Article
2017Interference and nanoimprint lithography for the patterning of large areas
Tucher, N.; Hauser, H.; Höhn, O.; Kübler, V.; Wellens, C.; Müller, C.; Bläsi, B.
Conference Paper
2017On the nature of emitter diffusion and screen-printing contact formation on nanostructured silicon surfaces
Kafle, B.; Freund, T.; Schön, J.; Werner, S.; Lorenz, A.; Wolf, A.; Saint-Cast, P.; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.
Journal Article
2016Activation Energy of Negative Fixed Charges in Thermal ALD Al2O3
Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Richter, A.; Hofmann, M.
Journal Article
2016Efficiency increase of crystalline silicon solar cells with nanoimprinted rear side gratings for enhanced light trapping
Eisenlohr, J.; Tucher, N.; Hauser, H.; Graf, M.; Benick, J.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2016High-efficiency n-type silicon solar cells: Advances in PassDop technology and NiCu plating on boron emitter
Steinhauser, B.; Kamp, M.; Brand, A.A.; Jäger, U.; Bartsch, J.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2016The influence of nitrogen on laser doping from phosphorous doped a-SiNx layers
Steinhauser, B.; Jäger, U.; Benick, J.; Chong, E.; Lam, J.; Steeman, R.; Rostan, H.; Nekarda, J.; Hermle, M.; Preu, R.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2016Influence of surface near doping concentration on contact formation of silver thick film contacts
Rothhardt, P.; Meier, S.; Hoenig, R.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2016Large area patterning using interference and nanoimprint lithography
Bläsi, B.; Tucher, N.; Höhn, O.; Kübler, V.; Kroyer, T.; Wellens, C.; Hauser, H.
Conference Paper
2016Optical Modeling of Honeycomb Textures for Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Peters, I.; Hauser, H.; Tucher, N.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2016Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS
Tucher, N.; Eisenlohr, J.; Gebrewold, H.; Kiefel, P.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2016Ozone-Based Surface Conditioning Focused on an Improved Passivation for SHJ Solar Cells
Moldovan, A.; Dannenberg, T.; Temmler, J.; Kroely, L.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.
Journal Article
2016Ozone-based surface conditioning: Combining excellent surface passivation and industrial feasibility for SHJ solar cells: Presentation held at 26th PVSEC 2016, Singapore, 24.10.2016-28.10.2016
Moldovan, A.; Fischer, A.; Dannenberg, T.; Temmler, J.; Bivour, M.; Zimmer, M.; Hermle, M.; Rentsch, J.; Adou-Ras, D.; Sonntag D.; Zhao, J.; Wissen, A.
Presentation
2016Rear side gratings for silicon solar cells: Efficiency enhancement finally demonstrated
Bläsi, B.; Tucher, N.; Eisenlohr, J.; Lee, B.G.; Benick, J.; Hauser, H.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2016Systematic analysis of diffuse rear reflectors for enhanced light trapping in silicon solar cells
Pfeffer, F.; Eisenlohr, J.; Basch, A.; Hermle, M.; Lee, B.G.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2016Ultrathin titanium dioxide nanolayers by atomic layer deposition for surface passivation of crystalline silicon
Gad, K.M.; Vössing, D.; Richter, A.; Rayner, B.; Reindl, L.M.; Mohney, S.E.; Kasemann, M.
Journal Article
20153D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells
Tucher, N.; Eisenlohr, J.; Kiefel, P.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Peters, M.; Müller, C.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2015Charge carrier separation in solar cells
Würfel, U.; Cuevas, A.; Würfel, P.
Journal Article
2015Crystalline silicon solar cells with enhanced light trapping via rear side diffraction grating
Tucher, N.; Eisenlohr, J.; Hauser, H.; Benick, J.; Graf, M.; Müller, C.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2015Degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon passivation films caused by sputtering deposition
Meiners, B.-M.; Borchert, D.; Hohage, S.; Holinksi, S.; Schäfer, P.
Journal Article
2015Honeycomb structure on multicrystalline silicon Al-BSF solar cell with 17.8% efficiency
Volk, A.-K.; Tucher, N.; Seiffe, J.; Hauser, H.; Zimmer, M.; Bläsi, B.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.
Journal Article
2015Impact of rear side roughness on optical and electrical properties of a high-efficiency solar cell
Richter, M.; Saint-Cast, P.; Dannenberg, T.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.
Journal Article
2015Manufacturing 100-µm-thick silicon solar cells with efficiencies greater than 20% in a pilot production line
Terheiden, B.; Ballmann, T.; Horbelt, R.; Schiele, Y.; Seren, S.; Ebser, J.; Hahn, G.; Mertens, V.; Koentopp, M.B.; Scherff, M.; Müller, J.W.; Holman, Z.C.; Descoeudres, A.; Wolf, S. de; Nicolas, S.M. de; Geissbuehler, J.; Ballif, C.; Weber, B.; Saint-Cast, P.; Rauer, M.; Schmiga, C.; Glunz, S.W.; Morrison, D.J.; Devenport, S.; Antonelli, D.; Busto, C.; Grasso, F.; Ferrazza, F.; Tonelli, E.; Oswald, W.
Journal Article
2015Matrix formalism for light propagation and absorption in thick textured optical sheets
Eisenlohr, J.; Tucher, N.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Peters, M.; Kiefel, P.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2015Nanostructuring of c-Si surface by F2-based atmospheric pressure dry texturing process
Kafle, B.; Seiffe, J.; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Rentsch, J.; Hofmann, M.
Journal Article
2015Nanotextured multicrystalline Al-BSF solar cells reaching 18% conversion efficiency using industrially viable solar cell processes
Bishal, K.; Mannan, A.; Freund, T.; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2015Optical properties of textured sheets. An efficient matrix-based modelling approach
Tucher, N.; Eisenlohr, J.; Kiefel, P.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Peters, M.; Müller, C.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.
Conference Paper
2015Passivation-induced cavity defects in laser-doped selective emitter Si solar cells - formation model and recombination analysis
Geisler, C.; Kluska, S.; Hopman, S.; Glatthaar, M.
Journal Article
2015Rear side diffractive gratings for silicon wafer solar cells
Peters, M.; Hauser, H.; Bläsi, B.; Kroll, M.; Helgert, C.; Fahr, S.; Wiesendanger, S.; Rockstuhl, C.; Kirchartz, T.; Rau, U.; Mellor, A.; Steidl, L.; Zentel, R.
Book Article
2015Rear side sphere gratings for improved light trapping in crystalline silicon single junction and silicon-based tandem solar cells
Eisenlohr, J.; Lee, B.G.; Benick, J.; Feldmann, F.; Drießen, M.; Milenkovic, N.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2015Relation between light trapping and surface topography of plasma textured crystalline silicon wafers
Souren, F.M.M.; Rentsch, J.; Sanden, M.C.M. van de
Journal Article
2015Tunnel oxide passivated carrier-selective contacts based on ultra-thin SiO2 layers
Moldovan, A.; Feldmann, F.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.; Hermle, M.; Benick, J.
Journal Article
2015Tunnel oxide passivated carrier-selective contacts based on ultra-thin SiO2 layers grown by photo-oxidation or wet-chemical oxidation in ozonized water
Moldovan, A.; Feldmann, F.; Kaufmann, K.; Richter, S.; Werner, M.; Hagendorf, C.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2015A versatile formalism for optical simulation of textured sheets
Tucher, N.; Eisenlohr, J.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2014Accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements of laser-doped areas in semiconductors
Heinrich, M.; Kluska, S.; Binder, S.; Hameiri, Z.; Hoex, B.; Aberle, A.G.
Journal Article
2014Firing-stable PassDop passivation for screen printed n-type PERL solar cells based on a-SiNx:P
Steinhauser, B.; Mansoor, M. bin; Jäger, U.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Fluid wrap around during wet chemical single side treatments
Richter, M.; Narayanan, S.; Hain, A.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.; Reinecke, H.
Conference Paper
2014Front side antireflection concepts for silicon solar cells with diffractive rear side structures
Bett, A.; Eisenlohr, J.; Höhn, O.; Bläsi, B.; Benick, J.; Repo, P.; Savin, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2014Hexagonal sphere gratings for enhanced light trapping in crystalline silicon solar cells
Eisenlohr, J.; Benick, J.; Peters, M.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014High-temperature Degradation in Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Al2O3 Surface Passivation Layers on Crystalline Silicon
Kühnhold, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Kafle, B.; Hofmann, M.; Colonna, F.; Zacharias, M.
Journal Article
2014Inkjet-printing for maskless separation of metal structures for back-contact silicon solar cells
Stüwe, D.; Hartmann, P.; Keding, R.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Clement, F.; Prokopiak, S.; Fastnacht, P.; Jesswein, R.; Geppert, T.; Woehl, R.; Korvink, J.G.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2014Investigations on the passivation mechanism of AlN:H and AlN:H-SiN:H stacks
Krugel, G.; Jenkner, F.; Moldovan, A.; Wolke, W.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2014Large area plasmonic nanoparticle arrays with well-defined size and shape
Meisenheimer, S.-K.; Jüchter, S.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Wellens, C.; Kübler, V.; Hauff, E. von; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2014Large-area honeycomb texturing of Si-solar cells via nanoimprint lithography
Tucher, N.; Volk, A.; Seiffe, J.; Hauser, H.; Müller, C.; Bläsi, B.
Conference Paper
2014MF-Sputtered AZO for a-Si SHJ Solar Cells
Jeurink, J.; Wagner, F.; Park, S.; Kroely, L.; Wolke, W.
Conference Paper
2014Multicrystalline silicon solar cell improvement by atmospheric pressure dry etching process
Kafle, B.; Trogus, D.; Seiffe, J.; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.
Conference Paper
2014Novel light trapping concepts for crystalline silicon solar cells using diffractive rear side structures
Eisenlohr, J.; Tucher, N.; Bett, A.; Hauser, H.; Graf, M.; Benick, J.; Goldschmidt, J.; Bläsi, B.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2014On the location and stability of charge in SiO2/SiNX dielectric double layers used for silicon surface passivation
Bonilla, R.S.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Wilshaw, P.R.
Journal Article
2014Online process control of alkaline texturing baths: Determination of the chemical concentrations
Zimmer, M.; Krieg, K.; Rentsch, J.
Journal Article
2014PECVD Al2O3 for Surface Passivation: A Review of Solar Cell and Thin Layer Characteristics Silicon Solar Cell
Kühnhold, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Hofmann, M.; Paramanathan, R.; El-Safoury, M.; Kafle, B.; Kania, D.; Weiss, L.; Heo, Y.-H.; Billot, E.; Olwal, P.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
2014Silicon heterojunction rear emitter solar cells: Less restrictions on the optoelectrical properties of front side TCOs
Bivour, M.; Schröer, S.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2014Simple Applicable Cleaning and Conditioning of Silicon Surfaces with UV/Ozone Sources
Moldovan, A.; Krugel, G.; Feldmann, F.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.; Roth-Fölsch, A.; Kaufmann, K.; Hagendorf, C.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2014Study of dielectric layers for bifacial n-type silicon solar cells with regard to optical properties, surface passivation quality, and contact formation
Kalio, A.; Richter, A.; Schmiga, C.; Glatthaar, M.; Wilde, J.
Journal Article
2014Study of plasmonic nanoparticle arrays for photon management in solar cells
Bläsi, B.; Jüchter, S.; Meisenheimer, S.-K.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Wellens, C.
Conference Paper
2013Aspects of surface conditioning for high-efficient hetero-junction silicon solar cells
Breitenstein, L.; Ritzau, K.U.; Hermle, M.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2013Boron emitter passivation with AI2O3 and AI2O3/SiNx stacks using ALD AI2O3
Richter, A.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2013Comparison of cleaning processes for enabling solderability of LFC-PERC silicon solar cells with evaporated Al as rear side metallization
Samadi, H.; Kumm, J.; Eberlein, D.; Hartmann, P.; Wolf, A.; Mack, S.
Conference Paper
2013Effective passivation of black silicon surfaces by atomic layer deposition
Repo, P.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Sainiemi, L.; Yli-Koski, M.; Talvitie, H.; Schubert, M.C.; Savin, H.
Journal Article
2013Effects of high-temperature treatment on the hydrogen distribution in silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride stacks for crystalline silicon surface passivation
Schwab, C.; Hofmann, M.; Heller, R.; Seiffe, J.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013Etching of PVD metal layers for contact separation of back contact silicon solar cells using inkjet-printing
Stüwe, D.; Hartmann, P.; Keding, R.; Clement, F.; Woehl, R.; Biro, D.; Fastnacht, P.; Jesswein, R.; Geppert, T.; Prokopiak, S.; Korvink, J.G.
Conference Paper
2013Fill factor limitation of silicon heterojunction solar cells by junction recombination
Reusch, M.; Bivour, M.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2013High-power-plasma PECVD of SiNx and Al2O3 for industrial solar cell manufacturing
Hofmann, M.; Kohn, N.; Schwarz, F.; Nölker, S.; Kastl, S.; Beckmann, R.; Ferré, R.; Pernau, T.; Trogus, D.; Kühnhold, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Rentsch, J.
Conference Paper
2013Impact on iron surface contamination on the lifetime degradation of samples passivated by fired AL2O3/SiNx
Breitenstein, L.; Schön, J.; Schubert, M.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2013Industrial screen-printed solar cells with novel atmospheric pressure dry texturing process
Kafle, B.; Trogus, D.; Dresler, B.; Mäder, G.; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.
Conference Paper
2013Integrating diffractive rear side structures for light trapping into crystalline silicon solar cells
Eisenlohr, J.; Hauser, H.; Benick, J.; Mellor, A.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2013Laser assisted honeycomb-texturing on multicrystalline silicon for industrial applications
Volk, A.-K.; Gutscher, S.; Brand, A.; Wolke, W.; Zimmer, M.; Reinecke, H.
Conference Paper
2013Microscopy analysis of pyramid formation evolution with ultra-low concentrated Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solution on (100) Si for solar cell application
Montesdeoca-Santana, A.; Orive, A.G.; Creus, A.H.; Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Borchert, D.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.
Journal Article
2013Multifunctional PECVD layers: Dopant source, passivation, and optics
Seiffe, J.; Pillath, F.; Trogus, D.; Brand, A.; Savio, C.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013A novel approach for single side wet chemical polishing of crystalline silicon solar cells
Richter, M.; Kästner, G.; Zimmer, M.; Fischer, A.; Corda, M.; Hain, A.
Conference Paper
2013PassDop based on firing stable a-SiNx:P as a concept for the industrial implementation of n-Type PERL silicon solar cells
Steinhauser, B.; Mansoor, M. bin; Jäger, U.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2013Passivation of black silicon boron emitters with atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide
Repo, P.; Benick, J.; Gastrow, G. von; Vähänissi, V.; Heinz, F.D.; Schön, J.; Schubert, M.C.; Savin, H.
Journal Article
2013Passivation of solar cell emitters using aluminum nitride
Krugel, G.; Sharma, A.; Moldovan, A.; Wolke, W.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
2013PECVD Al2O3/a-Si:B as a dopant source and surface passivation
Seiffe, J.; Gahoi, A.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013A predictive optical simulation model for the rear surface roughness of passivated silicon solar cells
Wöhrle, M.; Greulich, J.; Schwab, C.; Glatthaar, M.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2013Recombination and optical properties of wet chemically polished thermal oxide passivated Si surfaces
Schwab, C.; Wolf, A.; Graf, M.; Wöhrle, N.; Greulich, J.; Kühnhold, S.; Kästner, G.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013Study of hydrogenated AlN as an anti-reflective coating and for the effective surface passivation of silicon
Krugel, G.; Sharma, A.; Wolke, W.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013Technologies for mass production of > 20% efficient P-Type silicon solar cells
Mack, S.; Wolf, A.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Lohmüller, E.; Jäger, U.; Pospischil, M.; Clement, F.; Eberlein, D.; Preu, R.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2013Two-step plasma texturing process for industrial solar cell manufacturing
Seiffe, J.; Bremen, B.; Rappl, S.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.
Conference Paper
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.