Pilot Processing of Industrial Solar Cells

One of the most efficient ways of reducing the costs of photovoltaic power generation is to increase the efficiency of the solar cells used. Particularly in the case of silicon solar cells, in which the silicon material accounts for a significant proportion of the costs, targeted improvements in solar cell manufacture can yield major cost benefits. Optimizing industrial cell processes and developing new high efficiency cell structures are thus priorities in silicon photovoltaics.

There are two central laboratories available for this purpose at Fraunhofer ISE: On the one hand there is the clean room, in which new cell structures can be developed under ideal conditions, and on the other hand the Photovoltaic Technology Evalutation Center PV-TEC, in which industry-driven technology allows new concepts to be put efficiently into practice. Thanks to the combination of the two research platforms and a wide-ranging pool of characterization and simulation tools, Fraunhofer ISE is in the unique position worldwide of being able to assist its clients with all aspects of the entire chain, from basic development to production line implementation.

© Photo Fraunhofer ISE

Photovoltaik Technologie Evaluationscenter PV-TEC: View of the completely automatic oxidation/diffusion oven.

  • Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center (PV-TEC)

    The Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center PV-TEC at Fraunhofer ISE was established with the assistance of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in order to close the gap between laboratory research and industrial application.

Selected Research Projects

 

RDemo

 

20plµs

 

Ultrafast Regeneration

Prevention of light-induced degradation in solar cells via ultrafast regeneration

 

Current Publications - Pilot Processing of Industrial Solar Cells:

YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
2017Analysis of the losses of industrial-type PERC solar cells
Saint-Cast, P.; Werner, S.; Greulich, J.; Jäger, U.; Lohmüller, E.; Höffler, H.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2017Fast co-diffusion process for bifacial n-type solar cells
Meier, S.; Maier, S.; Demberger, C.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2017Impact of material and process variations on the distribution of multicrystalline silicon PERC cell efficiencies
Wasmer, S.; Greulich, J.; Höffler, H.; Wöhrle, N.; Demant, M.; Fertig, F.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2017Palladium/ruthenium composite membrane for hydrogen separation from the off-gas of solar cell production via chemical vapor deposition
Sang Moon, L.; Xu, N.; Kim, S.S.; Li, A.; Grace, J.R.; Lim, C.J.; Boyd, T.; Ryi, S.-K.; Susdorf, A.; Schaadt, A.
Journal Article
201620% efficient n-type Cz-Si MWT solar cells with adjustable reverse behavior
Lohmüller, E.; Werner, S.; Maus, S.; Brand, A.; Jäger, U.; Clement, F.
Journal Article
2016Adhesion quality of evaporated aluminum layers on passivation layers for rear metallization of silicon solar cells
Kumm, J.; Hartmann, P.; Eberlein, D.; Wolf, A.
Journal Article
2016All-diffused back-contact back-junction solar cell with aluminum-alloyed emitter - experiment and simulation
Wöhrle, N.; Kimmerle, A.; Greulich, J.; Wolf, A.
Journal Article
2016biPERC silicon solar cells enabling bifacial applications for industrial solar cells with passivated rear sides
Krauss, K.; Fertig, F.; Greulich, J.; Rein, S.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2016Extending the limits of screen-printed metallization of phosphorus- and boron-doped surfaces
Werner, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Wolf, A.; Clement, F.
Journal Article
2016Flexo-printed busbarless solar cells for multi-wire interconnection
Lorenz, A.; Gredy, C.; Senne, A.; Beyer, S.; Yao, Y.; Papet, P.; Ufheil, J.; Reinecke, H.
Journal Article
2016Flexographic printing - towards an advanced front side metallization approach with high throughput and low silver consumption
Lorenz, A.; Gredy, C.; Beyer, S.; Yao, Y.; Papet, P.; Ufheil, J.; Senne, A.; Reinecke, H.; Clement, F.
Journal Article
2016Impact of Firing Temperature Profiles on Local BSF Formation in PERC Solar Cells
Mack, S.; Richter, P.; Werner, S.; Clement, F.; Wolf, A.
Conference Paper
2016On the emitter formation in nanotextured silicon solar cells to achieve improved electrical performances
Kafle, B.; Schön, J.; Fleischmann, C.; Werner, S.; Wolf, A.; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.
Journal Article
2016PC1Dmod 6.2 - improved simulation of c-Si devices with updates on device physics and user interface
Haug, H.; Greulich, J.
Journal Article
2016Plasma-Free Dry-Chemical Texturing Process for High-Efficiency Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Kafle, B.; Freund, T.; Mannan, A.; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Werner, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
2016Screen-printed metallization concepts for large-area back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells
Hendrichs, M.; Padilla, M.; Walter, J.; Clement, F.; Rech, B.
Journal Article
2016Simplified fabrication of n-type Cz-Si HIP-MWT+ solar cells with 20% efficiency using laser structuring
Lohmüller, E.; Werner, S.; Maus, S.; Brand, A.; Jäger, U.; Nekarda, J.; Clement, F.
Journal Article
2016Towards a 300 WP p-Type HIP-MWT-Module - Simulation, Experimental Results and Costs
Spribille, A.; Savisalo, T.; Kraft, A.; Eberlein, D.; Ebert, M.; Fellmeth, T.; Nold, S.; Pantsar, H.; Clement, F.
Conference Paper
2016Towards understanding the characteristics of Ag-Al spiking on boron-doped silicon for solar cells
Wöhrle, N.; Lohmüller, E.; Greulich, J.; Werner, S.; Mack, S.
Journal Article
2016Understanding process-related efficiency variations of mc-Si PERC cells
Wasmer, S.; Greulich, J.; Höffler, H.; Wöhrle, N.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2015Analysis and performance of dispensed and screen printed front side contacts at cell and module level
Rodriguez, C.; Pospischil, M.; Padilla, A.; Kuchler, M.; Klawitter, M.; Geipel, T.; Padilla, M.; Fellmeth, T.; Brand, A.; Efinger, R.; Linse, M.; Gentischer, H.; König, M.; Hörteis, M.; Wende, L.; Doll, O.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2015Codiffusion sources and barriers for the assembly of back-contact back-junction solar cells
Bin Tanvir, N.; Keding, R.; Rothhardt, P.; Meier, S.; Wolf, A.; Reinecke, H.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2015Comprehensive comparison of different fine line printing technologies addressing the seed and plate approach with Ni-Cu-plating
Lorenz, A.; Kraft, A.; Gredy, C.; Filipovic, A.; Binder, S.; Krüger, K.; Bartsch, J.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Reinecke, H.
Conference Paper
2015Development, characterization and modelling of doping profile, contact resistance, and metal spiking in diffused and screen-printed boron emitters
Wöhrle, N.; Lohmüller, E.; Werner, S.; Greulich, J.
Conference Paper
2015Evaluation of screen-printed metallization concepts for large-area BC-BJ solar cells
Hendrichs, M.; Padilla, M.; Walter, J.; Clement, F.; Fell, A.; Rech, B.
Conference Paper
2015Light-induced degradation of silicon solar cells with aluminium oxide passivated rear side
Krauss, K.; Fertig, F.; Menzel, D.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2015Long-term and annealing stable, solderable PVD metallization with optimized Al diffusion barrier
Kumm, J.; Chacko, R.V.; Samadi, H.; Hartmann, P.; Eberlein, D.; Jäger, U.; Wolf, A.
Journal Article
2015Manufacturing 100-µm-thick silicon solar cells with efficiencies greater than 20% in a pilot production line
Terheiden, B.; Ballmann, T.; Horbelt, R.; Schiele, Y.; Seren, S.; Ebser, J.; Hahn, G.; Mertens, V.; Koentopp, M.B.; Scherff, M.; Müller, J.W.; Holman, Z.C.; Descoeudres, A.; Wolf, S. de; Nicolas, S.M. de; Geissbuehler, J.; Ballif, C.; Weber, B.; Saint-Cast, P.; Rauer, M.; Schmiga, C.; Glunz, S.W.; Morrison, D.J.; Devenport, S.; Antonelli, D.; Busto, C.; Grasso, F.; Ferrazza, F.; Tonelli, E.; Oswald, W.
Journal Article
2015Optimization of BBr3 diffusion processes for n-type silicon solar cells
Werner, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Belledin, U.; Vlooswijk, A.H.G.; Naber, R.C.G.; Mack, S.; Wolf, A.
Conference Paper
2015Origin of corrosion effects in solar cell contacts during electrochemical nickel deposition
Kraft, A.; Pernia, Y.; Kalio, A.; Gautrein, A.; Ni, L.M.; Bartsch, J.; Glunz, S.; Reinecke, H.
Journal Article
2015PC1Dmod 6.1 - state-of-the-art models in a well-known interface for improved simulation of Si solar cells
Haug, H.; Greulich, J.; Kimmerle, A.; Stensrud Marstein, E.
Journal Article
2015Progress on industrial solar cell front side metallization by parallel dispensing technology
Pospischil, M.; Kuchler, M.; Klawitter, M.; Efinger, R.; Rodriguez, C.; Padilla, A.; Gentischer, H.; König, M.; Hörteis, M.; Wende, L.; Mette, A.; Clement, F.; Preu, R.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2015Pseudo FF and Voc analysis of Cz-Si based low concentrator solar cells
Fellmeth, T.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2015Short-circuit current density imaging methods for silicon solar cells
Fertig, F.; Padilla, M.; Breitenstein, O.; Höffler, H.; Geisemeyer, I.; Schubert, M.C.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2015Status and perspective of emitter formation by POCl3-diffusion
Wolf, A.; Kimmerle, A.; Werner, S.; Maier, S.; Belledin, U.; Meier, S.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
201419.9 % efficient bifacial n-type solar cell produced by co-diffusion-cobin
Rothhardt, P.; Meier, S.; Jiang, K.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2014Analysing the lateral series resistance of high-performance metal wrap through solar cells
Greulich, J.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2014An analytical model for interdigitated back contact solar cells
Saint-Cast, P.; Padilla, M.; Kimmerle, A.; Reichel, C.
Journal Article
2014Analytical modeling of industrial-related silicon solar cells
Fellmeth, T.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2014The BOSCO solar cell - a both sides collecting and contacted structure
Fertig, F.; Krauß, K.; Greulich, J.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2014The BOSCO Solar Cell: Double-sided Collection and Bifacial Operation
Fertig, F.; Krauß, K.; Greulich, J.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2014The HIP-MWT+ solar cell concept on N-type silicon and metallization-induced voltage losses
Lohmüller, E.; Werner, S.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Wöhrle, N.; Mack, S.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2014Inkjet-printing for maskless separation of metal structures for back-contact silicon solar cells
Stüwe, D.; Hartmann, P.; Keding, R.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Clement, F.; Prokopiak, S.; Fastnacht, P.; Jesswein, R.; Geppert, T.; Woehl, R.; Korvink, J.G.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2014Localization and characterization of annealing-induced shunts in Ni-plated monocrystalline silicon solar cells
Büchler, A.; Kluska, S.; Kasemann, M.; Breitwieser, M.; Kwapil, W.; Hähnel, A.; Blumtritt, H.; Hopman, S.; Glatthaar, M.
Journal Article
2014Next generation printing technologies for fine-line metallization of Si solar cells: Paper presented at 6th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion 2014, Kyoto, Japan, 23.11.2014-27.11.2014
Clement, F.; Pospischil, M.; Lorenz, A.; Linse, M.; Erath, D.; Kuchler M.; Klawitter, M.; Spribille, A.; Hoenig, R.; Efinger, R.; Fellmeth, T.; Biro, D.
Presentation
2014Reverse bias behavior of diffused and screen-printed n-type Cz-Si solar cells
Lohmüller, E.; Fertig, F.; Werner, S.; Geisemeyer, I.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2013Co-diffused back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells without gap regions
Keding, R.; Stüwe, D.; Kamp, M.; Reichel, C.; Wolf, A.; Woehl, R.; Borchert, D.; Reinecke, H.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2013Cost-optimized metallization layout for metal wrap through (MWT) solar cells and modules
Hendrichs, M.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Fellmeth, T.; Nold, S.; Spribille, A.; Herrmann, P.; Mittag, M.; Hädrich, I.; Eitner, U.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
2013Effects of high-temperature treatment on the hydrogen distribution in silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride stacks for crystalline silicon surface passivation
Schwab, C.; Hofmann, M.; Heller, R.; Seiffe, J.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013Evaluation of industrially relevant parameters for contact firing of screen printed front side silver contacts
Hönig, R.; Vössing, D.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Wilde, J.
Journal Article
2013HIP-MWT: Our approach for high performance ribbon based back contact MWT modules with Low CTM losses
Spribille, A.; Hendrichs, M.-S.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Clement, F.; Hädrich, I.; Wiese, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Morf, P.; Gretler, A.; Rueedy, A.; Nussbaumer, H.; Träger, A.
Conference Paper
2013Multifunctional PECVD layers: Dopant source, passivation, and optics
Seiffe, J.; Pillath, F.; Trogus, D.; Brand, A.; Savio, C.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013P-Type MWT solar cells: Current status and future expectations
Thaidigsmann, B.; Hendrichs, M.; Nold, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Wolf, A.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
2013Potential-induced degradation on cell level: The inversion model
Saint-Cast, P.; Nagel, H.; Wagenmann, D.; Schön, J.; Schmitt, P.; Reichel, C.; Glunz, S.W.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
2013Study of hydrogenated AlN as an anti-reflective coating and for the effective surface passivation of silicon
Krugel, G.; Sharma, A.; Wolke, W.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013Technologies for mass production of > 20% efficient P-Type silicon solar cells
Mack, S.; Wolf, A.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Lohmüller, E.; Jäger, U.; Pospischil, M.; Clement, F.; Eberlein, D.; Preu, R.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2013Transfer of the HIP-MWT solar cell concept to n-type silicon
Lohmüller, E.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Clement, F.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2013Wet chemical single-side emitter etch back for MWT solar cells with AL-BSF and challenges for via paste selection
Spribille, A.; Lohmüller, E.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Hamid, R.; Nussbaumer, H.; Clement, F.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.