Pilot Processing of Industrial Silicon Solar Cells

 

 

One of the most efficient ways of reducing the costs of photovoltaic power generation is to increase the efficiency of the solar cells used. Particularly in the case of silicon solar cells, in which the silicon material accounts for a significant proportion of the costs, targeted improvements in solar cell manufacture can yield major cost benefits. Optimizing industrial cell processes and developing new high efficiency cell structures are thus priorities in silicon photovoltaics.

There are two central laboratories available for this purpose at Fraunhofer ISE: On the one hand there is the clean room, in which new cell structures can be developed under ideal conditions, and on the other hand the Photovoltaic Technology Evalutation Center PV-TEC, in which industry-driven technology allows new concepts to be put efficiently into practice. Thanks to the combination of the two research platforms and a wide-ranging pool of characterization and simulation tools, Fraunhofer ISE is in the unique position worldwide of being able to assist its clients with all aspects of the entire chain, from basic development to production line implementation.

 

 

automatic oxidation/diffusion oven
© Fraunhofer ISE
Photovoltaik Technologie Evaluationscenter PV-TEC: View of the completely automatic oxidation/diffusion oven.
  • Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center (PV-TEC)

    The Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center PV-TEC at Fraunhofer ISE was established with the assistance of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in order to close the gap between laboratory research and industrial application.

Selected Research Projects

 

RDemo

 

20plµs

 

Ultrafast Regeneration

Evaluation and Development of Rotary Printing Methods for the Manufacture of Si Solar Cells

 

Current Publications - Pilot Processing of Industrial Solar Cells:

Jahr
Year
Titel/Autor:in
Title/Author
Publikationstyp
Publication Type
2022 Atmospheric Pressure Dry Etching of Polysilicon Layers for highly Reverse Bias-stable TOPCon Solar Cells
Kafle, Bishal; Mack, Sebastian; Teßmann, Christopher; Bashardoust, Sattar; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Wolf, Andreas; Hofmann, Marc; Rentsch, Jochen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Stable Reverse Bias or Integrated Bypass Diode in HIP-MWT+ Solar Cells
Schweigstill, T.; Spribille, A.; Huyeng, J.D.; Clement, F.; Glunz, S.W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Progress in P-type Tunnel Oxide-Passivated Contact Solar Cells with Screen-Printed Contacts
Mack, S.; Herrmann, D.; Lenes, M.; Renes, M.; Wolf, A.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Hocheffiziente Solarzellen durch selektive Kontakte
Moldovan, A.; Ding, K.; Rau, U.; Peibst, R.; Korte, L.; Stannowski, B.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Evaluating a Procedure to Align Local Laser Doping and Metallization
Weber, J.; Lohmüller, E.; Gutscher, S.; Brand, A.A.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Intense pulsed light in back end processing of solar cells with passivating contacts based on amorphous or polycrystalline silicon layers
Schube, J.; Tutsch, L.; Fellmeth, T.; Feldmann, F.; Weil, M.; Harter, A.; Polzin, J.-I.; Bivour, M.; Keding, R.; Glunz, S.W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 High-Precision Alignment Procedures for Patterning Processes in Solar Cell Production
Lohmüller, E.; Weber, J.; Demant, M.; Lohmüller, S.; Gutscher, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Wolf, A.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Plating for Passivated-Contact Solar Cells
Kluska, S.; Hatt, T.; Grübel, B.; Cimiotti, G.; Schmiga, C.; Arya, V.; Steinhauser, B.; Feldmann, F.; Bartsch, J.; Goraya, B.S.; Nold, S.; Brand, A.A.; Nekarda, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Studying Knotless Screen Patterns for Fine-Line Screen Printing of Si-Solar Cells
Tepner, S.; Ney, L.; Linse, M.; Lorenz, A.; Pospischil, M.; Clement, F.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 FoilMet® - Connect: A New Rear Metallization Upgrade for PERC and other Cell Concepts
Paschen, Jan Tobias; Emanuel, Gernot; Brand, Andreas; Fellmeth, Tobias; Rose, Angela de; John, Oliver; Nekarda, Jan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Progress in Parallel Dispensing for Si Metallization. Additional Applications around the PV Back-End
Pospischil, M.; Riebe, T.; Jimenez, A.; Kuchler, M.; Tepner, S.; Geipel, T.; Ourinson, D.; Fellmeth, T.; Breitenbücher, M.; Buck, T.; Dhamrin, M.; Clement, F.
Vortrag
Presentation
2019 P-Type Silicon Solar Cells with Passivating Rear Contact Formed by LPCVD p+ Polysilicon and Screen Printed Ag Metallization
Mack, S.; Lenes, M.; Luchies, J.-M.; Wolf, A.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Inkjet- and FlexTrail-Printing with Low Silver Consumption for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells
Schube, J.; Fellmeth, T.; Jahn, M.; Keding, R.; Glunz, S.W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 PERC-Based Shingled Solar Cells and Modules at Fraunhofer ISE
Baliozian, P.; Klasen, N.; Wöhrle, N.; Kutter, C.; Stolzenburg, H.; Münzer, A.; Saint-Cast, P.; Mittag, M.; Lohmüller, E.; Fellmeth, T.; Al-Akash, M.; Kraft, A.; Heinrich, M.; Richter, A.; Fell, A.; Neuhaus, H.; Preu, R.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Advanced Metallization with Low Silver Consumption for Silicon Heterjunction Solar Cells
Schube, J.; Fellmeth, T.; Jahn, M.; Keding, R.; Glunz, S.W.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Inkjet-Printing of Phosphorus and Boron Dopant Sources for Tunnel Oxide Passivating Contacts
Kiaee, Z.; Reichel, C.; Keding, R.; Nazarzadeh, M.; Lohmann, R.; Feldmann, F.; Jahn, M.; Huyeng, J.D.; Hermle, M.; Clement, F.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Precise Selective Doping and Metallization for Next-Generation PERC Technology
Keding, R.; Efinger, R.; Lohmüller, E.; Jahn, M.; Fellmeth, T.; Messmer, M.; Meier-Meybrunn, S.; Horzel, J.; Lohmüller, S.; Weber, J.; Demant, M.; Lorenz, A.; Saint-Cast, P.; Brand, A.A.; Nekarda, J.; Clement, F.; Greulich, J.; Preu, R.; Pickrell, M.; Hermans, J.
Vortrag
Presentation
2019 Intense Pulsed Light Meets the Metallization of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells
Schube, J.; Weil, M.; Fellmeth, T.; Keding, R.; Glunz, S.W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2019 Evaluation of the Burnout Phase of the Contact Firing Process for Industrial PERC
Ourinson, D.; Emanuel, G.; Lorenz, A.; Clement, F.; Glunz, S.W.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 "Project FINALE" - Screen and Screen Printing Process Development for Ultra-Fine-Line Contacts below 20µm Finger Width
Clement, F.; Linse, M.; Tepner, S.; Wengenmeyer, N.; Ney, L.; Krieg, K.; Lorenz, A.; Pospischil, M.; Bechmann, S.; Oehrle, K.; Steckemetz, S.; Preu, R.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Advanced BBr3 diffusion with second deposition step for selective emitter formation by laser doping
Lohmüller, S.; Lohmüller, E.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2018 Mosaic Module Concept for Cost-Efficient and Aesthetic BIPV Modules
Mittag, M.; Ebert, M.; Wilson, H.R.; Fellmeth, T.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Front side metallization of silicon solar cells by direct printing of molten metal
Gerdes, B.; Jehle, M.; Lass, N.; Riegger, L.; Spribille, A.; Linse, M.; Clement, F.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2018 Low-Resistivity Screen-Printed Contacts on Indium Tin Oxide Layers for Silicon Solar Cells with Passivating Contacts
Schube, J.; Tutsch, L.; Fellmeth, T.; Bivour, M.; Feldmann, F.; Hatt, T.; Maier, F.; Keding, R.; Clement, F.; Glunz, S.W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2018 Advancements in the Utilization of Screen-Printed Boron Doping Paste for High Efficiency Back-Contact Back-Junction Silicon Solar Cells
Huyeng, J.; Lang, S.F.; Efinger, R.; Schmidt, S.; Spribille, A.; Bruge, D.; Wolf, A.; Keding, R.; Doll, O.; Clement, F.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Trends in Solar Electricity
Bett, A.W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2018 Towards 90% Bifaciality for p-Type Cz-Si Solar Cells by Adaption of Industrial PERC Processes
Lohmüller, E.; Lohmüller, S.; Norouzi, M.H.; Saint-Cast, P.; Weber, J.; Meier, S.; Wolf, A.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Simulations on Laser-Phosphorous-Doped Selective Emitters
Weber, J.; Lohmüller, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Wasmer, S.; Nekarda, J.; Brand, A.A.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Screen Printed Thick-Film Metallization of Silicon Solar Cells - Recent Developments and Future Perspectives
Lorenz, A.; Linse, M.; Frintrup, H.; Jeitler, M.; Mette, A.; Lehner, M.; Greutmann, R.; Brocker, H.; König, M.; Erath, D.; Clement, F.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Solder joint analysis on coated aluminum for silicon solar cell interconnection
Rose, Angela de; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.; Nowottnick, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Laser-Doped Selective Emitter - Process Development and Speed-Up
Weber, J.; Gutscher, S.; Lohmüller, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Brand, A.A.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 High-Efficiency Diamond Wire-Sawn mc-Si-Based PERC Solar Cells Textured by Atmospheric Pressure Dry Etching
Kafle, B.; Ridoy, A.I.; Saint-Cast, P.; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Duncker, K.; Petter, K.; Peters, S.; Hofmann, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Efficiency Gain Analysis of Silicon Passivated Emitter and Rear Solar Cells Solely Based on Measurements
Wasmer, S.; Horst, A. van der; Saint-Cast, P.; Greulich, J.M.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Applicability of photonic sintering and autoclaving as alternative contact formation methods for silicon solar cells with passivating contacts
Schube, J.; Fellmeth, T.; Maier, F.; Keding, R.; Clement, F.; Glunz, S.W.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Bifacial p-type silicon shingle solar cells - the "pSPEER" concept
Baliozian, P.; Lohmüller, E.; Fellmeth, T.; Wöhrle, N.; Krieg, A.; Preu, R.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Bifacial p-type silicon PERL solar cells with screen-printed pure silver metallization and 89% bifaciality
Lohmüller, E.; Werner, S.; Norouzi, M.H.; Mack, S.; Demant, M.; Gutscher, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Wasmer, S.; Wöhrle, N.; Bitnar, B.; Steckemetz, S.; Palinginis, P.; Neuhaus, H.; König, M.; Wolf, A.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 A new pilot research facility for HJT and selective contact solar cells - PV-TEC SELECT
Rentsch, J.; Bivour, M.; Erath, D.; Feldmann, F.; Fischer, A.; Mack, S.; Moldovan, A.; Temmler, J.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.; Preu, R.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Internal resistance of rear totally diffused solar cells with line shaped contacts
Meier, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Wöhrle, N.; Fell, A.; Greulich, J.; Wolf, A.; Glunz, S.W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Fast co-diffusion process for bifacial n-type solar cells
Meier, S.; Maier, S.; Demberger, C.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.; Glunz, S.W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Increasing the efficiency of multicrystalline silicon PERC solar cells from currently 19% to 20%
Greulich, J.; Lohmüller, E.; Saint-Cast, P.; Werner, S.; Wasmer, S.; Horst, A.J. van der; Preu, R.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Key aspects for fabrication of p-type Cz-Si PERC solar cells exceeding 22% conversion efficiency
Werner, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Saint-Cast, P.; Greulich, J.M.; Weber, J.; Schmidt, S.; Moldovan, A.; Brand, A.A.; Dannenberg, T.; Mack, S.; Wasmer, S.; Demant, M.; Linse, M.; Ackermann, R.; Wolf, A.; Preu, R.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Investigation of BC Architectures along TRL at FHG-ISE
Keding, R.; Reichel, C.; Müller, R.; Huyeng, J.; Rendler, L.C.; Spribille, A.; Hermle, M.; Eitner, U.; Clement, F.
Vortrag
Presentation
2017 Easy plating - a simple approach to suppress parasitically metallized areas in front side Ni/Cu plated crystalline Si solar cells
Kluska, S.; Büchler, A.; Bartsch, J.; Grübel, B.; Brand, A.A.; Gutscher, S.; Cimiotti, G.; Nekarda, J.; Glatthaar, M.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Palladium/ruthenium composite membrane for hydrogen separation from the off-gas of solar cell production via chemical vapor deposition
Sang Moon, L.; Xu, N.; Kim, S.S.; Li, A.; Grace, J.R.; Lim, C.J.; Boyd, T.; Ryi, S.-K.; Susdorf, A.; Schaadt, A.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 The development of shingled cells and modules
Preu, R.
Vortrag
Presentation
2017 Analysis of the losses of industrial-type PERC solar cells
Saint-Cast, P.; Werner, S.; Greulich, J.; Jäger, U.; Lohmüller, E.; Höffler, H.; Preu, R.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Challenges for lowly-doped phosphorus emitters in silicon solar cells with screen-printed silver contacts
Werner, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Maier, S.; Mourad, S.; Wolf, A.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 High throughput printing for highly efficient cost-effective Si solar cells
Clement, F.; Lorenz, A.; Pospischil, M.; Biro, D.; Brocker, H.; Bangel, D.; Greutmann, R.; Lehner, M.; Ott, T.; Hage, F.; Oppelt, K.; Honold, T.; Wende, L.; Ringel, M.; Senne, A.; Rohde, J.; Preu, R.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Experimental verification of internal resistance moldels for PERT-type solar cells
Meier, S.; Unmüßig, S.; Brand, A.; Saint-Cast, P.; Fellmeth, T.; Wolf, A.; Glunz, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Solder interconnection of aluminum foil rear side metallization for passivated emitter and rear solar cells
Rose, Angela de; Kraft, A.; Gledhill, S.; Ali, M.T.; Kroyer, T.; Pscherer, C.; Graf, M.; Nekarda, J.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Impact of material and process variations on the distribution of multicrystalline silicon PERC cell efficiencies
Wasmer, S.; Greulich, J.; Höffler, H.; Wöhrle, N.; Demant, M.; Fertig, F.; Rein, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Towards a 300 WP p-Type HIP-MWT-Module - Simulation, Experimental Results and Costs
Spribille, A.; Savisalo, T.; Kraft, A.; Eberlein, D.; Ebert, M.; Fellmeth, T.; Nold, S.; Pantsar, H.; Clement, F.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2016 Extending the limits of screen-printed metallization of phosphorus- and boron-doped surfaces
Werner, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Wolf, A.; Clement, F.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Impact of Firing Temperature Profiles on Local BSF Formation in PERC Solar Cells
Mack, S.; Richter, P.; Werner, S.; Clement, F.; Wolf, A.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2016 Simplified fabrication of n-type Cz-Si HIP-MWT+ solar cells with 20% efficiency using laser structuring
Lohmüller, E.; Werner, S.; Maus, S.; Brand, A.; Jäger, U.; Nekarda, J.; Clement, F.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 PC1Dmod 6.2 - improved simulation of c-Si devices with updates on device physics and user interface
Haug, H.; Greulich, J.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Understanding process-related efficiency variations of mc-Si PERC cells
Wasmer, S.; Greulich, J.; Höffler, H.; Wöhrle, N.; Rein, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Flexo-printed busbarless solar cells for multi-wire interconnection
Lorenz, A.; Gredy, C.; Senne, A.; Beyer, S.; Yao, Y.; Papet, P.; Ufheil, J.; Reinecke, H.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Flexographic printing - towards an advanced front side metallization approach with high throughput and low silver consumption
Lorenz, A.; Gredy, C.; Beyer, S.; Yao, Y.; Papet, P.; Ufheil, J.; Senne, A.; Reinecke, H.; Clement, F.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Adhesion quality of evaporated aluminum layers on passivation layers for rear metallization of silicon solar cells
Kumm, J.; Hartmann, P.; Eberlein, D.; Wolf, A.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Plasma-Free Dry-Chemical Texturing Process for High-Efficiency Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Kafle, B.; Freund, T.; Mannan, A.; Clochard, L.; Duffy, E.; Werner, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2014 19.9 % efficient bifacial n-type solar cell produced by co-diffusion-cobin
Rothhardt, P.; Meier, S.; Jiang, K.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2013 Wet chemical single-side emitter etch back for MWT solar cells with AL-BSF and challenges for via paste selection
Spribille, A.; Lohmüller, E.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Hamid, R.; Nussbaumer, H.; Clement, F.; Preu, R.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
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