Feedstock, Crystallization and Wafering

R&D Services

Our R&D services comprise:

Feedstock Analysis and Qualification

Technology and Characterization

Advancements in silicon materials for photovoltaics are most efficient when achieved throughout the entire production chain. The opportunities afforded by the silicon materials platform established by our team at Fraunhofer ISE in 2011, allow us to model all process steps from mono- and multicrystalline ingot crystallization to block shaping, polishing and wafering. We are thus able to offer skilled, comprehensive characterization of all the different process steps involved from the feedstock through to the finished solar cell under one roof.

Our research aims to develop silicon crystals and silicon wafers for solar cells that are of the highest quality and the lowest cost. In order to achieve this, innovative approaches are adopted in the crystallization process to minimize the introduction of impurities and defects, and processes and equipment are developed for increased throughput. In relation to wafering, we research diamond wire and slurry-based sawing processes for outstanding cutting performance, minimum kerf losses and optimum wafer surfaces.

The high levels of expertise that we employ for the benefit of our clients are demonstrated by multicrystalline wafers manufactured in block casting processes that exhibit solar cell efficiencies of up to 20%, and wafer thicknesses of under 70 µm.

Crystallisation facility to produce multicrystalline silicon ingots.
© Fraunhofer ISE
Crystallisation facility to produce multicrystalline silicon ingots.
  • SIMTEC
    Silicon Material TEChnology research center

Selected Research Projects

 

KosmoS

Cost-Optimized High-Efficiency Solar Cells of Low-Oxygen N-Type Monocrystalline Silicon for Industrial Mass Production

 

SiliconBEACON

Unlimited, Resource-saving Solar Cells Based on Metallurgical-grade Silicon

 

Current Publications - Feedstock, Crystallization and Wafering:

Jahr
Year
Titel/Autor:in
Title/Author
Publikationstyp
Publication Type
2022 LeTID mitigation via an adapted firing process in p-type PERC cells from SMART cast-monocrystalline, Czochralski and high-performance multicrystalline silicon
Maischner, F.; Maus, S.; Greulich, J.; Lohmüller, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Saint-Cast, P.; Ourinson, D.; Vahlman, H.; Hergert, K.; Riepe, S.; Glunz, S.; Rein, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Efficiency Potential Analysis of p- and n-Type Epitaxially Grown Si Wafers
Rittmann, C.; Dalke, J.; Drießen, M.; Weiss, C.; Schindler, F.; Sorgenfrei, R.; Schubert, M.C.; Janz, S.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 The Potential of Cast Silicon
Schubert, M.; Schindler, F.; Benick, J.; Riepe, S.; Krenckel, P.; Richter, A.; Müller, R.; Hammann, B.; Nold, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Propagation of Crystal Defects During Directional Solidification of Silicon via Induction of Functional Defects
Krenckel, P.; Hayama, Y.; Schindler, F.; Trötschler, T.; Riepe, S.; Usami, N.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Influence of Dopant Elements on Degradation Phenomena in B- and Ga-Doped Czochralski-grown Silicon
Kwapil, W.; Dalke, J.; Post, R.; Niewelt, T.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 The Crystal Growth Explorer: Real-Time Navigable 3D Visualization of Silicon Grains and Defect Related Data in Cast-Mono and Multicrystalline Bricks
Schönauer, J.; Demant, M.; Trötschler, T.; Kovvali, A.S.; Schremmer, H.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Rein, S.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Atom Probe Tomography Study of Gettering in High-Performance Multicrystalline Silicon
Tweddle, D.; Hamer, P.; Shen, Z.; Heinz, F.D.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Schindler, F.; Wilshaw, P.R.; Moody, M.P.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 LeTID- and (Extended) BO-Related Degradation and Regeneration in B- and Ga-Doped Monocrystalline Silicon during Dark and Illuminated Anneals
Kwapil, W.; Dalke, J.; Niewelt, T.; Schubert, M.C.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Early Stage Quality Assesment in Silicon Ingots from MDP Brick Characterization
Kovvali, A.S.; Demant, M.; Rebba, B.; Schüler, N.; Haunschild, J.; Rein, S.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Correlation of defect luminescence and recombination in multicrystalline silicon
Wyller, Guro Marie; Schindler, Florian; Kwapil, Wolfram; Schön, Jonas; Olsen, Espen; Haug, Halvard; Riepe, Stephan; Schubert, Martin C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Enhanced Material Quality in SMART Moni-Si Block Cast Ingots by Introduction of Functional Defects
Riepe, S.; Krenckel, P.; Hayama, Y.; Hess, A.; Trötschler, T.; Kutsukake, K.; Maus, S.; Schindler, F.; Usami, N.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Development of high performance multicrystalline silicon with controlled seeding
Hess, Adam; Krenckel, Patricia; Trötschler, Theresa; Fehrenbach, Tobias; Riepe, Stephan
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Slurry Sawing of Multicrystalline Silicon with Low-Viscosity Carrier Liquid
Kaden, T.; Look, C.; Ischenko, V.; Gröschel, M.; Anspach, O.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Trends in Solar Electricity
Bett, A.W.
Vortrag
Presentation
2018 Photonic structures for III-V//Si multi-junction solar cells with efficiency >33%
Bläsi, Benedikt; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Tucher, Nico; Cariou, Romain; Benick, Jan; Feldmann, Frank; Beutel, Paul; Lackner, David; Siefer, Gerald; Glunz, Stefan W.; Bett, Andreas W.; Dimroth, Frank; Hermle, Martin
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Towards the Efficiency Limits of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Schindler, F.; Fell, A.; Müller, R.; Benick, J.; Richter, A.; Feldmann, F.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Schubert, M.C.; Glunz, S.W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2018 Metal Contamination in the Diamond Wire Sawing Process of Silicon and Influence on the Solar Cell Efficiency
Kaden, T.; Lottspeich, L.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Instrumental determination of phosphorus in silicon for photovoltaics by v spectroscopy: A new approach
Karches, B.; Welter, K.; Stieghorst, C.; Wiehl, N.; Reich, T.; Riepe, S.; Krenckel, P.; Gerstenberg, H.; Plonka, C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Determination of impurity distributions in ingots of solar grade silicon by neutron activation analysis
Karches, B.; Schön, J.; Gerstenberg, H.; Hampel, G.; Krenckel, P.; Plonka, C.; Ponsard, B.; Riepe, S.; Stieghorst, C.; Wiehl, N.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Approaching 22% efficiency with multicrystalline n-type silicon solar cells
Benick, J.; Müller, R.; Schindler, F.; Richter, A.; Hauser, H.; Feldmann, F.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Schubert, M.C.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Characterization of the diamond wire sawing process for monocrystalline silicon by raman spectroscopy and SIREX polarimetry
Würzner, S.; Herms, M.; Kaden, T.; Möller, H.J.; Wagner, M.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Optimized multicrystalline silicon for solar cells enabling conversion efficiencies of 22%
Schindler, F.; Michl, B.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Benick, J.; Müller, R.; Richter, A.; Glunz, S.W.; Schubert, M.C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Rapid vapor-phase direct diffused emitter for solar cell applications
Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Gust, E.; Amiri, D.; Richter, A.; Steinhauser, B.; Drießen, M.; Michl, B.; Greulich, J.; Benick, J.; Lindekugel, S.; Janz, S.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 High-Efficiency n-Type HP MC Silicon Solar Cells
Benick, J.; Richter, A.; Müller, R.; Hauser, H.; Feldmann, F.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Schindler, F.; Schubert, M.C.; Hermle, M.; Bett, A.W.; Glunz, S.W.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 Feeding of liquid silicon for high performance multicrystalline silicon with increased ingot height and homogenized resistivity
Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Schindler, F.; Strauch, T.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2017 A novel approach to determine the diamond occupancy of diamond wires for optimized cutting processes for crystalline silicon
Lottspeich, L.; Theophil, L.; Fuchs, M.; Kaden, T.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 The influence of material properties on the wire sawing process of multicrystalline silicon
Kaden, T.; Ershova, E.; Lottspeich, L.; Fuchs, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 Growth of large scale silicon crystals by the rf-heated float zone technique
Zobel, F.; Mosel, F.; Störensen, J.; Dold, P.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 How to achieve efficiencies exceeding 22% with multicrystalline n-type silicon solar cells
Schindler, F.; Michl, B.; Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Benick, J.; Müller, R.; Richter, A.; Glunz, S.W.; Schubert, M.C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Changes of solar cell parameters during damp-heat exposure
Zhu, J.; Koehl, M.; Hoffmann, S.; Berger, K.A.; Zamini, S.; Bennett, I.; Gerritsen, E.; Malbranche, P.; Pugliatti, P.; Di Stefano, A.; Aleo, F.; Bertani, D.; Paletta, F.; Roca, F.; Graditi, G.; Pellegrino, M.; Zubillaga, O.; Iranzo, F.J.C.; Pozza, A.; Sample, T.; Gottschalg, R.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Insights into metastability of photovoltaic materials at the mesoscale through massive I-V analytics
Peshek, T.J.; Fada, J.S.; Hu, Y.; Xu, Y.; Elsaeiti, M.A.; Schnabel, E.; Köhl, M.; French, R.H.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Optimized Grain Size of Seed Plates for High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon
Krenckel, P.; Riepe, S.; Schindler, F.; Strauch, T.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2016 N-type multicrystalline silion for high efficiency solar cells
Riepe, S.; Krenckel, P.; Schindler, F.; Schubert, M.; Benick, J.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Improving the material quality of silicon ingots by aluminum gettering during crystal growth
Schön, J.; Krenckel, P.; Karches, B.; Schindler, F.; Giesecke, J.; Stieghorst, C.; Wiehl, N.; Schubert, M.C.; Riepe, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Cost Effective Growth of Silicon Mono Ingots by the Application of a Mobile Recharge System in CZ-Puller
Mosel, F.; Denisov, A.V.; Klipp, B.; Spill, B.; Sharma, R.; Kunert, R.; Dold, P.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2016 Impact of rain and soiling on potential induced degradation
Köhl, M.; Hoffmann, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2016 Effect of thermal insulation of the back side of PV modules in the module temperature
Koehl, M.; Hamperl, S.; Heck, M.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
Diese Liste ist ein Auszug aus der Publikationsplattform Fraunhofer-Publica

This list has been generated from the publication platform Fraunhofer-Publica