Diffusion Furnace in the PV-TEC at Fraunhofer ISE

Loading of the diffusion tubes withbatches of multicrystalline silicon wafers. The wafers, sorted into quartz boats, are brought into the up to 1000 °C hot quartz tubes.

Doping and Diffusion

Solar cells must comprise differently doped zones that perform different functions, e.g. the p-n junction or high-low junctions. A range of methods is available at Fraunhofer ISE to achieve such doping either across the entire surface or in specific areas. These include the established tube furnace diffusion method as well as a variety of other options:

  • Diffusion from deposited/printed coatings, patterned if necessary, in tube furnace and continuous through-feed processes
  • Laser diffusion from deposited/printed coatings or liquid phase, as well as laser transfer doping
  • Ion implantation incl. annealing


This development work aims to achieve ideal, tailored solutions for creating doped zones in the many different solar cell types. The specific challenges here lie in generating a physically perfect doping profile (metal semiconductor contact, minimized recombination, structure size, etc.) and in using methods that are both inexpensive and viable at the throughput rate required for production.

 

Current publications - Doping and Diffusion:

YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
2016The influence of nitrogen on laser doping from phosphorous doped a-SiNx layers
Steinhauser, B.; Jäger, U.; Benick, J.; Chong, E.; Lam, J.; Steeman, R.; Rostan, H.; Nekarda, J.; Hermle, M.; Preu, R.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2016Influence of surface near doping concentration on contact formation of silver thick film contacts
Rothhardt, P.; Meier, S.; Hoenig, R.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2015Adapted parameterization of incomplete ionization in aluminum-doped silicon and impact on numerical device simulation
Steinkemper, H.; Rauer, M.; Altermatt, P.; Heinz, F.D.; Schmiga, C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2015Defect removal after low temperature annealing of boron implantations by emitter etch-back for silicon solar cells
Müller, R.; Moldovan, A.; Schiller, C.; Benick, J.
Journal Article
2015Emitters grown by rapid vapour-phase direct doping for high efficiency solar cells
Lindekugel, S.; Rachow, T.; Milenkovic, N.; Richter, A.; Benick, J.; Janz, S.; Reber, S.
Conference Paper
2015Impact of implanted phosphorus on the diffusivity of boron and its applicability to silicon solar cells
Schrof, J.; Müller, R.; Reedy, R.C.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2015Ion-implanted laser-annealed p+ and n+ regions. A potential solution for industrially feasible high-efficiency n-type interdigitated back-contact solar cells
Yang, X.; Müller, R.; Xu, L.; Bi, Q.; Weber, K.; Franklin, E.; Benick, J.
Journal Article
2015Passivation-induced cavity defects in laser-doped selective emitter Si solar cells - formation model and recombination analysis
Geisler, C.; Kluska, S.; Hopman, S.; Glatthaar, M.
Journal Article
2015Solar cells with epitaxial or gas phase diffused emitters above 21% efficiency
Rachow, T.; Milenkovic, N.; Steinhauser, B.; Benick, J.; Janz, S.; Hermle, M.; Reber, S.
Journal Article
2015Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for applications in silicon solar cells
Reichel, C.; Feldmann, F.; Müller, R.; Reedy, R.C.; Lee, B.G.; Young, D.L.; Stradins, P.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
201419.9 % efficient bifacial n-type solar cell produced by co-diffusion-cobin
Rothhardt, P.; Meier, S.; Jiang, K.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2014Accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements of laser-doped areas in semiconductors
Heinrich, M.; Kluska, S.; Binder, S.; Hameiri, Z.; Hoex, B.; Aberle, A.G.
Journal Article
2014The BOSCO Solar Cell: Double-sided Collection and Bifacial Operation
Fertig, F.; Krauß, K.; Greulich, J.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2014Characterization of POCl3-based codiffusion processes for bifacial N-type solar cells
Rothhardt, P.; Meier, S.; Maier, S.; Jiang, K.Y.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2014Evaluation of implantation annealing for highly-doped selective boron emitters suitable for screen-printed contacts
Müller, R.; Benick, J.; Bateman, N.; Schön, J.; Reichel, C.; Richter, A.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2014Firing-stable PassDop passivation for screen printed n-type PERL solar cells based on a-SiNx:P
Steinhauser, B.; Mansoor, M. bin; Jäger, U.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Heavily doped Si:P emitters of crystalline Si solar cells: Recombination due to phosphorus precipitation
Min, B.; Wagner, H.; Dastgheib-Shirazi, A.; Kimmerle, A.; Kurz, H.; Altermatt, P.P.
Journal Article
2014Interdigitated back contact silicon solar cells with tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation
Reichel, C.; Feldmann, F.; Müller, R.; Moldovan, A.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2014Ion implantation for all-alumina IBC solar cells with floating emitter
Müller, R.; Reichel, C.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Local boron doping for P-type PERL silicon solar cells fabricated by laser processing of doped silicon nanoparticle paste
Jäger, U.; Wolf, A.; Wufka, C.; Tomizawa, Y.; Imamura, T.; Soeda, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Shiro, T.
Conference Paper
2014Main defect reactions behind phosphorus diffusion gettering of iron
Schön, J.; Vähänissi, V.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.; Savin, H.
Journal Article
2014POCL3-based co-diffusion process for N-type back-contact back-junction solar cells
Keding, R.; Hendrichs, M.; Stüwe, D.; Jahn, M.; Reichel, C.; Borchert, D.; Wolf, A.; Reinecke, H.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2014Process optimization for the front side of P-type silicon solar cells
Werner, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Maier, S.; Kimmerle, A.; Spribille, A.; Wasmer, S.; Clement, F.; Wolf, A.
Conference Paper
2014Recombination characteristics of p+ regions alloyed from screen-printed aluminum pastes containing boron additives
Rauer, M.; Steinkemper, H.; Schmiga, C.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2013Alloying from screen-printed aluminum pastes containing boron additives
Rauer, M.; Schmiga, C.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2013Co-diffused back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells
Keding, R.; Stüwe, D.; Kamp, M.; Reichel, C.; Wolf, A.; Woehl, R.; Borchert, D.; Reinecke, H.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2013Co-diffused back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells without gap regions
Keding, R.; Stüwe, D.; Kamp, M.; Reichel, C.; Wolf, A.; Woehl, R.; Borchert, D.; Reinecke, H.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2013Co-diffusion from APCVD BSG and POCl3 for industrial n-type solar cells
Rothhardt, P.; Demberger, C.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2013Co-diffusion from solid sources for bifacial n-type solar cells
Rothhardt, P.; Keding, R.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2013Depletion of boron-doped surfaces protected with barrier layers during POCL3-diffusion
Lohmüller, E.; Werner, S.; Schön, J.; Thanas, M.; Mack, S.; Wolke, W.; Wolf, A.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2013Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors
Heinrich, M.; Kluska, S.; Hameiri, Z.; Hoex, B.; Aberle, A.G.
Journal Article
2013Incomplete ionization of aluminum in silicon and its effect on accurate determination of doping profiles
Rauer, M.; Rüdiger, M.; Schmiga, C.; Strutzberg, H.; Bähr, M.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2013Investigation of aluminum-boron doping profiles formed by coalloying of screen-printed pastes
Rauer, M.; Schmiga, C.; Tuschinsky, A.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz S.
Journal Article
2013Laser doping from borosilicate glass for metallization of boron emitters
Fernandez-Robledo, S.; Jäger, U.; Lohmüller, E.; Nekarda, J.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
2013PassDop based on firing stable a-SiNx:P as a concept for the industrial implementation of n-Type PERL silicon solar cells
Steinhauser, B.; Mansoor, M. bin; Jäger, U.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2013Simplified front surface field formation for back contacted silicon solar cells
Kimmerle, A.; Woehl, R.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.