Quality assurance for PV modules and power plants

For PV power plants of all sizes, we offer an individual, continuous quality assurance. The picture shows a 10 MWp solar power station in Masdar, Abu Dhabi tested by Fraunhofer ISE.

Quality control of solar modules

With a thermographic camera, potential problems can be discovered and remedied by our experts.

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Thermography of a PV power plant

Thermography imaging to detect modules with hot-spot effects.

Quality assurance for PV modules and power plants

For PV power plants of all sizes, we offer an individual, continuous quality assurance. The picture shows a 150 MW PV power plant in the Atacama Desert, Chile, that was tested comprehensively by Fraunhofer ISE and certified by VDE.

Avoid planning mistakes

Modeling of a two-axis tracked PV system in »RADIANCE«. The shadow of the PV plant would result in row shading.

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Photovoltaic Power Plants

Since 1990, Fraunhofer ISE has made important contributions to the quality control of photovoltaic power plants. We offer ongoing services in quality assurance from the planning phase through to power plant operation.

In projects carried out in cooperation with renowned international partners, we permanently are putting our many years of experience to test. Our leading scientific expertise and state-of-the-art equipment are a fundamental part of our service.

Our yield assessments lay the basis for determining the economic feasibility of future power plants and provide information about the expected yield at each site. For our simulations we rely on our expertise in the field and make use of the data from component characterizations carried out in our laboratories. An on-site analyses with visual inspections, thermographic images and actual yield measurements provide information about the system quality and assists in identifying faults.

After operation, we determine the actual Performance Ration of the power plant. We compare the results with the values of the yield assessment and are thus able to recognize potential deviations from optimal operation at an early stage.

Precise laboratory measurments form the basis for module benchmarking in the planning phase, for random sampling analyses during commissioning and for examinations during the operation. In our accredited calibration laboratory, we not only carry out measurements with a world-leading measurement precision of 1.1%, but we are also able to process large numbers of modules in a short amount of time.

  • Current-voltage measurement device
  • High resolution IR camera (also available with drone)
  • DaySy – Daylight System Luminescence
  • Reference cells

Selected Research Projects


IEA PVPS Task 13

Performance and Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems



Self-Learning Algorithms for PV Power Forecasting as an Instrument for Decentralized Energy Management



Solar Potentials of German Traffic Routes

Video, Brochure and Flyer: Photovoltaic Power Plants


Video: Quality Assurance for PV Power Plants

Brochure: Quality Assurance for PV Power Plants

Flyer: Integrated Technical and Financial Services for PV Power Plants

Flyer: Quality Assurance for PV Power Plants in the First Development Stages

Flyer: Performance Monitoring of PV Power Plants

Current publications - Photovoltaic Power Plants


YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
2020Integrierte Photovoltaik - Aktive Flächen für die Energiewende
Wirth, H.; Vehse, M.; Rau, B.; Peibst, R.; Colsmann, A.; Stephan, A.; Lechner, P.
Conference Paper
201940 Jahre nach dem "Atlas über die Sonnenstrahlung in Europa". Umfang und Qualität Heutiger Einstrahlungsdatensätze
Reise, C.; Lorenz, E.; Müller, B.
Conference Paper
2019A Comparison of Two Models for the Separation of Direct and Diffuse Irradiance in Plane of Array
Guzman Razo, Dorian Esteban; Killinger, Sven; Müller, Björn; Wittwer, Christof
Conference Paper
2019Degradation bei PV Kraftwerken. Theorie und Praxis
Kiefer, K.; Farnung, B.; Müller, B.; Reinartz, K.; Rauschen, I.
Conference Paper
2019Degradation in PV Power Plants: Theory and Practice
Kiefer, K.; Farnung, B.; Müller, B.; Reinartz, K.; Rauschen, I.; Klünter, C.
Conference Paper
2019First Results from a High Precision Indoor & Outdoor PV Module Monitoring Campaign
Reise, C.; Kräling, U.; Schnabel, E.; Kiefer, K.; Bohnert, U.
Conference Paper
2019Long-Term Trends of In-Plane-Irradiance, Performance and Energy Yield for PV Systems: Presentation held at 29th International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference 2019, Xi'an, China (R.O.), 04 November 2019
Müller, B.; Kiefer, K.
2019Practical Comparison between View Factor Method and Ray-Tracing Method for Bifacial PV System Yield Prediciton
Kang, J.; Jang, J.; Reise, C.; Lee, K.
Conference Paper
2019Strom und Kartoffeln von der gleichen Fläche ernten
Farnung, B.
Journal Article
2018Approach for a Holistic Optimization from Wafer to PV System
Mittag, M.; Reise, C.; Wöhrle, N.; Eberle, R.; Schubert, M.; Heinrich, M.
Conference Paper
2018Architektonisch anspruchsvolle, fassadenintegrierte Photovoltaik am ZÜBLIN-Gebäude Z3: Paper präsentiert auf dem Forum Bauwerkintegrierte Photovoltaik, Bad Staffelstein, Germany, 24. April 2018
Fath, K.; Eisenlohr, J.; Wilson, H.R.; Kuhn, T.
Conference Paper
2018From Bifaciality to Yield: Different Bifacial Cell Technologies May Differ Even More in Annual Outdoor Performance
Reise, C.; Baarah, G.; Schnabel, E.; Kräling, U.; Müller, B.; Chang, S.; Choe, Y.; Cho, H.
Conference Paper
2018Predicting Yields of Bifacial PV Power Plants - What Accuracy is Possible?
Chiodetti, M.; Kang, J.; Reise, C.; Lindsay, A.
Conference Paper
2018Unsicherheiten von Ertragsprognosen für Photovoltaik-Kraftwerke unter besonderer Berücksichtigung langfristiger Variationen des Solarstrahlungs-Potenzials
Müller, Björn; Vajen, Klaus (Referent); Beyer, Hans Georg (Referent)
2017IFC-based electricity simulation of a complex BIPV façade: Presentation held at 12th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, 2-3 October 2017, Bern, Switzerland
Eisenlohr, J.; Wilson, H.R.; Kuhn, T.
2017Measurement and GIS-based spatial modelling of copper corrosion in different environments in Europe
Slamova, K.; Koehl, M.
Journal Article
2016Yield predictions for photovoltaic power plants: Empirical validation, recent advances and remaining uncertainties
Müller, B.; Hardt, L.; Armbruster, A.; Kiefer, K.; Reise, C.
Journal Article
2015Investment risks of utility-scale PV: Opportunities and limitations of risk mitigation strategies to reduce uncertainties of energy yield predictions
Müller, B.; Heydenreich, W.; Reich, N.; Reise, C.; Farnung, B.
Conference Paper
2015On the uncertainty of energetic impact on the yield of different PV technologies due to varying spectral irradiance
Dirnberger, D.; Müller, B.; Reise, C.
Journal Article
2015On-site performance verification to reduce yield prediction uncertainities
Reich, N.; Zenke, J.; Müller, B.; Kiefer, K.; Farnung, B.
Conference Paper
2015Projections of long-term changes in solar radiation based on CMIP5 climate models and their influence on energy yields of photovoltaic systems
Wild, M.; Folini, D.; Henschel, F.; Müller, B.
Journal Article
2015Realistic yield expectations for bifacial PV systems - an assessment of announced, predicted and observed benefits
Reise, C.; Schmid, A.
Conference Paper
2015Solarenergie zur Stromerzeugung
Kiefer, K.
Book Article
2015Technical analysis and optimization of a high concentrating photovoltaic power tower
Ordóñez Moreno, K.; Heimsath, A.; Wiesenfarth, M.; Schöttl, P.; Nitz, P.
Conference Paper
2014Agrophotovoltaik - Ressourceneffiziente Landnutzung zur Entschärfung des Flächennutzungskonflikts zwischen Energie- und Landwirtschaft
Bopp, G.; Goetzberger, A.; Obergfell, T.; Reise, C.; Schindele, S.
Conference Paper
2014Brandgefahr durch PV-Anlagen: Teil 1: Statistische auswertung von Hitzeschäden und Brandfällen in PV-Anlagen
Laukamp, H.; Bopp, G.
Journal Article
2014Brandgefahren durch PV Anlagen - Erhebung und Analyse von Schadensfällen
Laukamp, H.,
Journal Article
2014Complete PV Power Plant Certification: New Standards for Quality Assurance of Large Scale PV Power Plants
Farnung, B.; Bostock, P.; Brückner, J.; Kiefer, K.
Conference Paper
2014Mehrertrag durch Global Brightening - Einfluss aktueller Einstrahlungsdaten auf prognostizierte PV-Erträge
Müller, B.; Hardt, L.; Driesse, A.; Reise, C.
Conference Paper
2014Präzise Leistungs- und Performance-Bewertung von PV-Kraftwerken im laufenden Betrieb
Steinhüser, A.; Müller, B.; Reise, C.
Conference Paper
2014Rethinking solar resource assessments in the context of global dimming and brightening
Müller, B.; Wild, M.; Driesse, A.; Behrens, K.
Journal Article
2014Yield predictions for photovoltaic power plants: Empirical validation, recent advances and remaining uncertainties
Müller, B.; Hardt, L.; Armbruster, A.; Kiefer, K.
Conference Paper
2013Design criteria for robust and secure next generation CPV control systems
Benoit, P.; Fey, S.; Rohbogner, G.; Kohrs, R.; Wittwer, C.; Georg, D.; Wüllner, J.; Gombert, A.
Conference Paper
2013Monitoring of photovoltaic systems: Good practices and systematic analysis
Woyte, A.; Richter, M.; Moser, D.; Mau, S.; Reich, N.; Jahn, U.
Conference Paper
2013PV fire hazard - analysis and assessment of fire incidents
Laukamp, H.; Bopp, G.; Grab, R.; Phillip, S.; Schmidt, H.; Reil, F.; Sepanski, A.; Thiem, H.; Vaasen, W.; Häberlin, H.; Heeckeren, B. van
Conference Paper
2013Schadens- und Brandfallanalyse an PV Anlagen: Vortrag gehalten auf dem 2. PV-Brandsicherheit Workshop, 24.01.2013, Freiburg
Laukamp, H.
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.