Solar cells usually suffer from losses when integrated into a module. Optical, geometrical and electrical effects interact and result in a cell-to-module (CTM) ratio in terms of power and efficiency. We analyze the effects down to the material level and assess the potential for optimization. Our ambition is to maximize the CTM-ratio for a variety of module designs by using a detailed and proven procedure of specific measurements and validated simulation models.
Our Cell-to-Module (CTM) analysis uses geometrical, optical, electrical, and thermal models to quantify performance losses in a module design. It allows for efficiency improvements and increased energy yield as well as systematic benchmarking of concepts and technologies to reduce R&D costs.
The benefits are:
- increase energy yield with given Bill of Materials
- minimize losses under changing conditions
- rapid assessment of new module concepts and technologies
- virtual energy rating and module benchmarking
- cost savings in development and prototyping
Furthermore, our CTM analysis serves as a basis for any techno-economic cost assessment and ecological, or life cycle assessment, LCA, analyses to support road mapping, decision-making and product development processes.
Our Services for PV Module Manufacturers:
- Systematic Cell-to-Module analysis of common and novel module designs
- Material characterization
- Shingle, full- and half-cell module optimization
- Dimensioning of ribbons and interconnectors
- Multiphysics modeling of optical, thermal and electrical characteristics of solar cells and modules
- Angular and spectral irradiance measurements
- Manufacturing of module prototypes and process development