Module Efficiency

Module design and the selection of module materials define the CTM, power/efficiency, reliability and cost.
© Fraunhofer ISE

Module design and the selection of module materials define the CTM, power/efficiency, reliability and cost.

Illustration of optical factors in CTM-analysis.
© Fraunhofer ISE

Illustration of optical factors in CTM-analysis.

Solar cells usually suffer from losses when integrated into a module. Optical, geometrical and electrical effects interact and result in a cell-to-module (CTM) ratio in terms of power and efficiency. We analyze the effects down to the material level and assess the potential for optimization. Our ambition is to maximize the CTM-ratio for a variety of module designs by using a detailed and proven procedure of specific measurements and validated simulation models.

  • Systematic Cell-to-Module analysis of common and novel module designs
  • SmartCalc.CTM: Software tool for CTM-optimization
  • Material characterization
  • Shingle, full- and half-cell module optimization
  • Dimensioning of ribbons and interconnectors
  • Multiphysics modeling of optics, mechanics and electrics by raytracing and FEM
  • Angular and spectral irradiance measurements
  • Manufacturing of module prototypes and process development