Device-integrated PV module

Highly efficient solar cells supply small devices regardless of grid connection.

Solar module for building integration

Solar modules with colored encapsulation material are ideally suited as facade claddings.

Passivated Metal Wrap Through (MWT) solar cell

Solar cell with back contact and surface passivation

Modelling of electrical losses

FEM-Simulation for distribution of electrical losses in MWT cell interconnector

Module Technology

R&D Services

Cell Interconnection and Encapsulation

Module Efficiency

Customized Modules and Module Integration

Metal Wrap Through (MWT)-Technology

Within the field of module technology, Fraunhofer ISE offers a comprehensive range of services for product development and materials testing. We provide support for turning innovative ideas into reliable, efficient and competitive products, as well as for improving quality and efficiency in existing module and interconnection concepts.

Our research covers the integration of high-efficiency solar cells, direct contacting of the aluminum metallization, reliable soldering processes, conductive adhesive technology, rear contact and wire interconnection, laminate-free edge-sealed solar modules and detailed analysis of cell-to-module (CTM) losses.

We are able to develop, improve and test your products to meet industrial demands our excellently equipped Fraunhofer ISE Module Technology Center (Module-TEC).

On this topic from our research blog »Innovation4E«:

Software Reduces Losses in Solar PV Modules

Blog post by Max Mittag

Max MittagA photovoltaic module consists of many interconnected solar cells. One cannot say, however, that the module power is simply the sum of the individual cells. Power losses due to reflection, absorption or electrical losses come about in the integration process. These cell-to-module, or CTM, losses have a large effect on the subsequent module performance and can vary greatly depending on the type of solar cell, material or module design. We at Fraunhofer ISE have created a model based on different material parameters in order to calculate these variations. With SmartCalc.CTM, we have developed a software program that makes PV modules (even) more efficient.


© Fraunhofer ISE

View inside the ModuleTEC with the X-ray unit and the tabber-stringer for fully automatic cell connection.

  • Module-TEC
    The new Module Technology Center (Module-TEC) offers widespread possibilities for developing photovoltaic module technologies. It closes the gap between laboratory development and industrial production by allowing the processing of significant quantities and formats.

Selected Research Projects


CTM 100+

Improving Module Performance by Analysis of Cell-to-Module Losses with SmartCalc.CTM



Efficient and Reliable Wire Connection of Solar Cells


Construct PV

Mosaic Modules as Photovoltaic Design Elements for Solar Facades

Flyer: Module Technology

Flyer: Photovoltaic Module Technology

Flyer: Device-Integrated Photovoltaics

Flyer: SmartCalc.CTM: Precise Cell-to-Module Analysis

Flyer: Colored PV Modules for Building Integration

Current publications - Module Technology


YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
2018Mechanical and electrical properties of wave-shaped wires for low-stress interconnection of solar cells
Rendler, L.; Walter, J.; Goldenberg, S.; Beinert, A.J.; Wiese, S.; Eitner, U.
Journal Article
2017Cell-to-Module (CTM) analysis for photovoltaic modules with shingled solar cells: Paper presented at 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 2017, Washington, DC, USA, 25.06.2017-30.06.2017
Mittag, M.; Zech, T.; Wiese, M.; Bläsi, D.; Ebert, M.; Wirth, H.
Conference Paper
2017FEM-based development of novel back-contact PV modules with ultra-thin solar cells
Beinert, A.; Leidl, R.; Sommerling, P.; Eitner, U.; Aktaa, J.
Conference Paper
2017Intermetallic compounds in solar cell interconnections: Microstructure and growth kinetics
Geipel, T.; Moeller, M.; Walter, J.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Journal Article
2017Power loss through decorative elements in the front glazing of BIPV modules
Mittag, M.; Kutter, C.; Ebert, M.; Wilson, H.R.; Eitner, U.
Conference Paper
2017Ribbon interconnection of 6" BC-BJ Solar Cells
Walter, J.; Rendler, L.; Halm, A.; Mihailetchi, V.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Journal Article
2017Solar potential on commercial trucks: Results of an irradiance measurement campaign on 6 trucks in Europe and USA
Eitner, U.; Ebert, M.; Zech, T.; Schmid, C.; Watts, A.; Heinrich, M.
Conference Paper
2017Solder joint stability study of wire-based interconnection compared to ribbon interconnection
Walter, J.; Rendler, L.C.; Ebert, C.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Journal Article
2017Systematic PV-module optimization with the cell-to-module (CTM) analysis software "SmartCalc.CTM"
Mittag, M.; Ebert, M.
Journal Article
2017Thermomechanical stress analysis of PV module production processes by Raman spectroscopy and FEM simulation
Beinert, A.J.; Romer, P.; Büchler, A.; Haueisen, V.; Aktaa, J.; Eitner, U.
Journal Article
2017TPedge: Progress on cost-efficient and durable edge-sealed PV modules
Mittag, M.; Eitner, U.; Neff, T.
Conference Paper
2017Ultra-soft wires for direct soldering on finger grids of solar cells
Rendler, L.C.; Walter, J.; Kraft, A.; Ebert, C.; Wiese, S.; Eitner, U.
Journal Article
2016A comprehensive study of intermetallic compounds in solar cell interconnections and their growth kinetics
Geipel, T.; Moeller, M.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Journal Article
2016Comprehensive Study of Intermetallic Compounds in Solar Cell Interconnections Including Lead-Free, Low Melting Point Solders
Geipel, T.; Möller, M.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Conference Paper
2016The impact of ribbon properties on measured peel forces
Eitner, U.; Rendler, L.C.
Journal Article
2016Influence of Photovoltaic Module Mounting Systems on the Thermo-Mechanical Stresses in Solar Cells by FEM Modelling
Beinert, A.J.; Ebert, M.; Eitner, U.; Aktaa, J.
Conference Paper
2016Investigation of Thermomechanical Stress in Solar Cells with Multi Busbar Interconnection by Finite Element Modeling
Rendler, L.C.; Kraft, A.; Ebert, C.; Wiese, S.; Eitner, U.
Conference Paper
2016Low-temperature interconnection of PVD-aluminium metallization
Geipel, T.; Kumm, J.; Moeller, M.; Kroely, L.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.; Wolf, A.; Zhang, Z.; Wolfahrt, P.
Journal Article
2016Mechanical stress in solar cells with multi busbar interconnection - parameter study by FEM simulation
Rendler, L.C.; Kraft, A.; Ebert, C.; Eitner, U.; Wiese, S.
Conference Paper
2016Mosaic modules for improved design options in building integrated photovoltaic modules
Ebert, M.; Mittag, M.; Fellmeth, T.; Spribille, A.; Mindehoud, T.; Gijzen, G.; Fath, K.; Hecker, R.; Eitner, U.
Conference Paper
2016Die parasitäre Kapazität eines PV-Moduls als Ursache für einen erhöhten Ableitstrom und Indikator für den Feuchteeintrag im Verkapselungsmaterial
Berg, H.; Hsian Saw, M.; Philipp, D.
Conference Paper
2016Photovoltaic Modules: Technology and Reliability
Wirth, H.; Weiß, K.-A.; Wiesmeier, C.
2016A PVT collector concept with variable film insulation and low-emissivity coating
Lämmle, M.; Thoma, C.; Hermann, M.
Journal Article
2016TPEDGE: Glass-glass photovoltaic module for BIPV-applications
Mittag, M.; Neff, T.; Hoffmann, S.; Ebert, M.; Eitner, U.; Wirth, H.
Conference Paper
2015Characterization of copper diffusion in silicon solar cells: 5th Workshop on Metallization of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells 2014, Konstanz, Germany, 20.10.2014-21.10.2014
Kraft, A.; Wolf, C.; Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.
Journal Article
2015Long term stability of copper front side contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells
Kraft, A.; Wolf, C.; Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.
Journal Article
2015A low concentrating cell and receiver concept based on low cost silicon solar cells
Ebert, M.; Fellmeth, T.; Dörsam, T.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Wiesenfarth, M.; Eitner, U.
Conference Paper
2015Modelling and verification of mechanical stress induced by soldering of wires for multi busbar interconnection
Rendler, L.C.; Walter, J.; Geipel, T.; Volk, M.; Ebert, C.; Eitner, U.
Conference Paper
2015Solarenergie zur Stromerzeugung
Kiefer, K.
Book Article
2015TPedge: Qualification of a gas-filled, encapsulation-free glass-glass photovoltaic module
Mittag, M.; Haedrich, I.; Neff, T.; Hoffmann, S.; Eitner, U.; Wirth, H.
Conference Paper
2015Triangular Ribbons for Improved Module Efficiency
Mittag, M.; Beinert, A.J.; Rendler, L.C.; Ebert, M.; Eitner, U.
Conference Paper
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.