Module Technology

R&D Services

Cell Interconnection

The interconnection of solar cells causes ohmic and optical losses in a module. We use various soldering technologies and industrial stringing equipment for measuring and optimizing the quality of the joints.

Encapsulation

With advanced characterization methods we are able to analyse all aspects of laminate properties. We focus on fast and accurate methods to accelerate product and process development cycles.

Integrated Modules

We develop integrated module designs to meet specific requirements and create tailored product solutions.

Module Efficiency

Solar cells usually suffer from losses when integrated into a module. We analyze the effects down to the material level and assess the potential for optimization.

FEM-Simulations of PV Modules and Components

Finite element method (FEM) simulations can quickly reveal optimization potential of PV modules and their components.

Fraunhofer ISE offers a comprehensive range of services for module product development and materials testing. We provide support for turning innovative ideas into reliable, efficient and competitive products, as well as for improving quality and efficiency in existing module and interconnection concepts.

Our research covers the integration of high-efficiency solar cells, reliable soldering processes, conductive adhesive technology, laminate-free edge-sealed solar modules and the cell-to-module (CTM) power and efficiency optimization.

We are able to develop, improve and test your products to meet industrial demands. Our excellently equipped Fraunhofer ISE Module Technology Center (Module-TEC) supports development from first ideas to module pilot manufacturing.

SmartCalc.CTM
© Fraunhofer ISE
With SmartCalc.CTM, Fraunhofer ISE has developed a software that helps reduce the cell-to-module power losses in PV module manufacturing.

SmartCalc.CTM is a tool for the fast and precise calculation of cell-to-module losses and gains for solar modules.

The combination of sophisticated scientific models and measured data provide the basis for CTM loss analysis of a wide range of module concepts and materials. An intuitive graphical user interface allows for quick and easy virtual protoytyping.

 

© Fraunhofer ISE
Industrial stringer for the interconnection of solar cells at Module-TEC

Module-TEC offers extensive facilities to develop module technology. It fills the gap between laboratory development and industrial production technology by allowing relevant charge numbers and formats to be processed. In addition to production and processing technology, numerous analytical facilities are available for quality control. Our research is concentrating on connection technology for crystalline solar cells, integration of high-efficiency cells into modules and the analysis and optimization of module efficiency. In parallel, we are developing application-specific customized modules for building integration (BIPV) and integration into vehicles.

Selected Research Projects

 

GEPARD

High-Throughput Production System and Process Technology for Crystalline Silicon Solar Modules

 

Lade-PV

Development of Vehicle-Integrated Photovoltaics for On-Board Charging of Electric Utility Vehicles

 

CTM 100+

Improving Module Performance by Analysis of Cell-to-Module Losses with SmartCalc.CTM

Latest Press Releases

 

Press Release - September 9, 2019

Fraunhofer ISE Presents Colored Solar Car Roof

The demand for electric vehicles is increasing worldwide. To extend the driving range, the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has developed a solar car roof with highly efficient solar cells. 

 

Press Release - January 9, 2019

Adhesive Process Developed for Shingle Cell Technology

The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Freiburg has developed a special adhesive process to interconnect silicon solar cells for the industrial production of shingle modules. The market demand for shingle modules is rising rapidly due to their high efficiency and pleasing aesthetics. The cell stringer at Fraunhofer ISE is unique in Germany. It offers a wide range of possibilities for the prototype production of this highly efficient module.

 

Press Release - October 24, 2018

Joint Research by Fraunhofer ISE and Heraeus for High-performance Solar Modules

The Fraunhofer ISE and Heraeus are researching and optimizing novel, selectively coated cell connectors in a joint research project. The Selectively Coated Ribbon (SCRTM) cell connector achieves an average gain of 1.9 W in conventional 60-cell solar modules.

Downloads: Flyer of Module Technology

Brochure: Photovoltaic Module Technology

Flyer: SmartCalc.CTM: Precise Cell-to-Module Analysis

Flyer: Colored PV Modules for Building Integration

Flyer: Electrically Conducive Adhesives in PV Modules

Flyer: High Efficiency Matrix Shingle Modules

Flyer: Increased Efficiency with Bifacial Shingle Modules

Flyer: FEM Simulation

Current publications - Module Technology

 

Jahr
Year
Titel/Autor:in
Title/Author
Publikationstyp
Publication Type
2022 Root Cause Analysis of Solar Cell Cracks at Shingle Joints
Klasen, N.; Heinz, F.; Rose, A. de; Roessler, T.; Kraft, A.; Kamlah, M.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2021 Quantitative Evaluation of the Shading Resilience of PV Modules
Klasen, N.; Lux, F.; Weber, J.; Weißer, D.; Rößler, T.; Kraft, A.
Vortrag
2021 PV Manufacturing in Europe. Statements
Bett, A.W.
Vortrag
2021 A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Silicon PV Modules: Impact of Module Design, Manufacturing Location and Inventory
Müller, A.; Friedrich, L.; Reichel, C.; Herceg, S.; Mittag, M.; Neuhaus, D.H.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2021 Production of Photovoltaics in Europe. Opportunities and Challenges
Bett, A.W.
Vortrag
2021 Aktueller Stand der Forschung/Entwicklung für Gebäudeintegrierte PV
Kuhn, T.
Vortrag
2021 Solarstrom als Pfeiler des Energiewandels
Bett, A.W.
Vortrag
2021 The Photovoltaics Renaissance - New Opportunities for a Key Enabler of the Clean Energy Transition
Bett, A.
Vortrag
2021 Design and Development of Solar Cell Integrated Moisture and Temperature Sensors for Photovoltaic Modules
Patel, J.N.B.; Fokuhl, E.; Prakash, K.S.; Beinert, A.; Wesselak, V.; Gebhardt, P.; Philipp, D.
Konferenzbeitrag
2021 Degradation Mechanisms and Partial Shading of Glass-backsheet and Double-Glass Photovoltaic Modules in Three Climate Zones Determined by Remote Monitoring of Time-series Current-voltage and Power Datastreams
Liu, J.; Wang, M.; Curran, A.J.; Schnabel, E.; Köhl, M.; Braid, J.L.; French, R.H.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2021 Keep cool and distribute stress. A recipe for improved performance
Meijer, S.; Masolin, A.; Beinert, A.
Vortrag
2021 The Impact of the Lamination Process on the Adhesion Properties at the Glass-Encapsulant Interface and Damp Heat Stability of PV Modules
Öz, A.K.; Herzog, C.; Wellens, C.; Mansour, D.E.; Heinrich, M.; Kraft, A.
Konferenzbeitrag
2021 Design and Development of Solar Cell Integrated Moisture and Temperature Sensors for Photovoltaic Modules
Patel, J.N.B.; Fokuhl, E.; Prakash, K.S.; Beinert, A.; Wesselak, V.; Gebhardt, P.; Philipp, D.
Poster
2021 Materialinnovationen für die Solarenergie
Bett, A.W.
Vortrag
2021 Performance of Shingled Solar Modules Under Partial Shading
Klasen, N.; Weißer, D.; Rößler, T.; Neuhaus, D.-H.; Kraft, A.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2021 Root Cause Analysis of Solar Cell Cracks at Shingle Joints
Klasen, N.; Heinz, F.; Rose, A. de; Rößler, T.; Kraft, A.; Kamlah, M.
Vortrag
2021 The MorphoColor Concept for Colored Photovoltaic Modules and Solar Thermal Collectors
Bläsi, B.; Wessels, A.; Callies, A.; Eisenlohr, J.; Ensslen, F.; Kuhn, T.; Kroyer, T.; Höhn, O.
Vortrag
2021 Quantitative Evaluation of the Shading Resilience of PV Modules
Klasen, N.; Lux, F.; Weber, J.; Weißer, D.; Roessler, T.; Kraft, A.; Neuhaus, D.H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 Enhancing PV Module Thermomechanical Performance and Reliability by an Innovative Mounting Solution
Beinert, A.; Masolin, A.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 The Effect of Cell and Module Dimensions on Thermomechanical Stress in PV Modules
Beinert, A.; Romer, P.; Heinrich, M.; Mittag, M.; Aktaa, J.; Neuhaus, D.H.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2020 Reduction of ECA Amount for the Ribbon Interconnection of Heterojunction Solar Cells
Kaiser, C.; Nikitina, V.; Geipel, T.; Kraft, A.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 The Challenge of Measuring Busbarless Solar cells and the Impact on Cell-to-Module Losses
Rauer, M.; Krieg, A.; Pfreundt, A.; Mittag, M.; Pingel, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2020 Integrated Lightweight, Glass-Free PV Module Technology for Box Bodies of Commercial Trucks
Kutter, C.; Basler, F.; Alanis, L.E.; Markert, J.; Heinrich, M.; Neuhaus, D.H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 Potential and Challenges of Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics for Passenger Cars
Heinrich, M.; Kutter, C.; Basler, F.; Mittag, M.; Alanis, L.E.; Eberlein, D.; Schmid, A.; Reise, C.; Kroyer, T.; Neuhaus, D.H.; Wirth, H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 Enabling the In-Situ Stress and Temperature Measurement by Silicon Solar Cell Integrated Stress and Temperature Sensors for Photovoltaic Modules
Beinert, A.J.; Imm, M.; Benick, J.; Becker, F.; Seitz, S.; Heinrich, M.; Paul, O.; Glunz, S.W.; Aktaa, J.; Eitner, U.; Neuhaus, H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 Trend Tracking of Efficiency and CTM Ratio of PV Modules
Tummalieh, A.; Pfreundt, A.; Mittag, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 Cell-To-Module (CTM) Analysis for Photovoltaic Modules with Cell Overlap
Shahid, J.; Karabacak, A.Ö.; Mittag, M.
Vortrag
2020 A Comparison of Different Solar Cell Technologies for Integrated Photovoltaics
Heinrich, M.; Kuhn, T.E.; Dimroth, F.; Würfel, U.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Powalla, M.; Glunz, S.W.; Neuhaus, D.H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 Silicon Solar Cell-Integrated Stress and Temperature Sensors for Photovoltaic Modules
Beinert, A.J.; Imm, M.; Benick, J.; Becker, F.; Seitz, S.; Heinrich, M.; Paul, O.; Glunz, S.W.; Aktaa, J.; Eitner, U.; Neuhaus, H.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2020 Integrierte Photovoltaik - Aktive Flächen für die Energiewende
Wirth, H.; Vehse, M.; Rau, B.; Peibst, R.; Colsmann, A.; Stephan, A.; Lechner, P.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 More Realistic Consideration of Backsheets Coefficient of Thermal Expansion on Thermomechanics of PV Modules
Romer, P.; Oreski, G.; Beinert, A.J.; Neuhaus, H.; Mittag, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 Spray Pyrolysis - a Versatile Technique for Thin Film Deposition in PV
Bartsch, J.; Heitmann, U.; Jakob, L.; Mahmoud Algazzar, R.; Tutsch, L.; Hermann, R.; Kluska, S.; Bivour, M.; Bläsi, B.; Hauser, H.; Janz, S.; Glatthaar, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2020 Energy Yield Modelling of 2D and 3D Curved Photovoltaic Modules
Neven-du Mont, S.; Heinrich, M.; Pfreundt, A.; Kutter, C.; Tummalieh, A.; Neuhaus, D.-H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Accelerated TC Test in Comparison with Standard TC Test for PV Modules with Ribbon, Wire and Shingle Interconnection
Schiller, C.; Rendler, L.C.; Eberlein, D.; Mülhöfer, G.; Kraft, A.; Neuhaus, D.-H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Data-Driven I-V Feature Extraction for Photovoltaic Modules
Ma, X.; Huang, W.H.; Schnabel, E.; Köhl, M.; Brynjarsdottir, J.; Braid, J.L.; French, R.H.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2019 Lead-free Solders for Ribbon Interconnection of Crystalline Silicon PERC Solar Cells with Infrared Soldering
Geipel, Torsten; Eberlein, Dirk; Kraft, Achim
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Interconnection of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells by Infrared Soldering - Solder Joint Analysis and Temperature Study
Rose, Angela de; Geipel, T.; Eberlein, D.; Kraft, A.; Nowottnick, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Adhesion Improvement for Solder Interconnection of Wet Chemically Coated Aluminum Surfaces
Rose, Angela de; Kamp, M.; Mikolasch, G.; Kraft, A.; Nowottnick, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Post-Processing Thickness Variation of PV Module Materials and its Impact on Temperature, Mechanical Stress and Power
Pfreundt, A.; Yucebas, D.; Beinert, A.J.; Verissimo Mesquita, L.; Pitta Bauermann, L.; Romer, P.; Mittag, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Differential Scanning Calorimetry for Simulation and Optimization of the Lamination Process
Herzog, C.; Müller, T.; Heinrich, M.; Neuhaus, D.-H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Techno-Economic Analysis of Half-Cell Modules - the Impact of Half-Cells on Module Power and Costs
Mittag, M.; Pfreundt, A.; Shahid, J.; Wöhrle, N.; Neuhaus, D.H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 FEM Simulation of Thermomechanical Stress in PV Modules
Beinert, A.
Vortrag
2019 Thermomechanical Evaluation of New PV Module Designs by FEM Simulations
Beinert, A.; Romer, P.; Heinrich, M.; Mittag, M.; Aktaa, J.; Neuhaus, D.H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Lead-free Solders for Ribbon Interconnection of Crystalline Silicon PERC Solar Cells with Infrared Soldering
Geipel, T.; Eberlein, D.; Kraft, A.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Industrialization of Ribbon Interconnection for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells with Electrically Conductive Adhesives
Geipel, T.; Nikitina, V.; Bauermann, L.P.; Fokuhl, E.; Schnabel, E.; Erath, D.; Krieg, A.; Kraft, A.; Fischer, T.; Lorenz, R.; Breitenbücher, D.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Thermal Modelling of Photovoltaic Modules in Operation and Production
Mittag, M.; Vogt, L.; Herzog, C.; Pfreundt, A.; Shahid, J.; Neuhaus, D.H.; Wirth, H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 FEM Simulation of Deformations in Strings of Shingled Solar Cells Subjected to Mechanical Reliability Testing
Klasen, N.; Romer, P.; Beinert, A.; Kraft, A.
Konferenzbeitrag
2019 Thermochemical Stress in Solar Cells: Contact Pad Modeling and Reliability Analysis
Rendler, L.; Romer, P.; Beinert, A.; Stecklum, S.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.; Wiese, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2019 Enabling the Measurement of Thermomechanical Stress in Solar Cells and PV Modules by Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy
Beinert, A.; Büchler, A.; Romer, P.; Haueisen, V.; Rendler, L.C.; Schubert, M.C.; Heinrich, M.; Aktaa, J.; Eitner, U.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2018 Decorated Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Modules: Power Loss, Color Appearance and Cost Analysis
Kutter, C.; Bläsi, B.; Wilson, H.R.; Kroyer, T.; Mittag, M.; Höhn, O.; Heinrich, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2018 Mosaic Module Concept for Cost-Efficient and Aesthetic BIPV Modules
Mittag, M.; Ebert, M.; Wilson, H.R.; Fellmeth, T.
Konferenzbeitrag
2018 A Multidimensional Optimization Approach to Improve Module Efficiency, Power and Costs
Shahid, J.; Mittag, M.; Heinrich, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2018 Rapid Calculation of the Backsheet Coupling Gain Using Ray Groups
Pfreundt, A.; Mittag, M.; Heinrich, M.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2018 Approach for a Holistic Optimization from Wafer to PV System
Mittag, M.; Reise, C.; Wöhrle, N.; Eberle, R.; Schubert, M.; Heinrich, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2018 Analysis of Grain-Size Distribution and Yield Strength of Interconnector Ribbons and Wires at Different Streching Conditions Using Color Etching
Walter, J.; Stegmaier, J.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2018 Optimization of electrically conductive adhesive bonds in photovoltaic modules
Geipel, T.; Meinert, M.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2018 Comparison of Layouts for Shingled Bifacial PV Modules in Terms of Power Output, Cell-to-Module Ratio and Bifaciality
Mondon, A.; Klasen, N.; Fokuhl, E.; Mittag, M.; Heinrich, M.; Wirth, H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2018 Mechanical and electrical properties of wave-shaped wires for low-stress interconnection of solar cells
Rendler, L.; Walter, J.; Goldenberg, S.; Beinert, A.J.; Wiese, S.; Eitner, U.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2018 Solder joint analysis on coated aluminum for silicon solar cell interconnection
Rose, Angela de; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.; Nowottnick, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2018 Electrically conductive adhesives for photovoltaic modules
Geipel, Torsten
Dissertation
2018 Light Attenuation Model to Predict Nominal Power of Modules with Light-Scattering Ceramic Printed Front Glasses
Kutter, C.; Wilson, H.R.; Pfreundt, A.; Heinrich, M.; Wirth, H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Systematic PV-module optimization with the cell-to-module (CTM) analysis software "SmartCalc.CTM"
Mittag, M.; Ebert, M.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2017 Solder joint stability study of wire-based interconnection compared to ribbon interconnection
Walter, J.; Rendler, L.C.; Ebert, C.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2017 Electrical and thermal modeling of junction boxes
Mittag, M.; Kutter, C.; Hoffmann, S.; Romer, P.; Beinert, A.J.; Zech, T.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Ribbon interconnection of 6" BC-BJ Solar Cells
Walter, Johann; Rendler, Li Carlos; Halm, Andreas; Mihailetchi, Valentin; Kraft, Achim; Eitner, Ulrich
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2017 Ultra-soft wires for direct soldering on finger grids of solar cells
Rendler, L.C.; Walter, J.; Kraft, A.; Ebert, C.; Wiese, S.; Eitner, U.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2017 FEM-based development of novel back-contact PV modules with ultra-thin solar cells
Beinert, Andreas; Leidl, Roman; Sommeling, Paul; Eitner, Ulrich; Aktaa, Jarir
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 TPedge: Progress on cost-efficient and durable edge-sealed PV modules
Mittag, M.; Eitner, U.; Neff, T.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Thermomechanical stress analysis of PV module production processes by Raman spectroscopy and FEM simulation
Beinert, A.J.; Romer, P.; Büchler, A.; Haueisen, V.; Aktaa, J.; Eitner, U.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2017 Analysis of peel and shear forces after temperature cycle tests for electrical conductive adhesives
Hoffmann, S.; Geipel, T.; Meinert, M.; Kraft, A.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Solder interconnection of aluminum foil rear side metallization for passivated emitter and rear solar cells
Rose, Angela de; Kraft, A.; Gledhill, S.; Ali, M.T.; Kroyer, T.; Pscherer, C.; Graf, M.; Nekarda, J.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Abgedeckter PVT-Kollektor mit Low-e-Beschichtung und Belüftung als Überhitzungsschutz
Lämmle, M.; Panzer, C.; Hermann, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Low-temperature soldering for the interconnection of silicon heterojunction solar cells
Rose, Angela de; Erath, D.; Geipel, T.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Analysis of backsheet and rear cover reflection gains for bifacial solar cells
Mittag, M.; Grünzweig, A.; Wiese, M.; Mahmoud, N.; Schmid, A.; Heinrich, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Shingled cell interconnection: A new generation of bifacial PV-modules
Klasen, N.; Mondon, A.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Power loss through decorative elements in the front glazing of BIPV modules
Mittag, M.; Kutter, C.; Ebert, M.; Wilson, H.R.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2017 Cell-to-Module (CTM) analysis for photovoltaic modules with shingled solar cells
Mittag, M.; Zech, T.; Wiese, M.; Bläsi, D.; Ebert, M.; Wirth, H.
Vortrag
2017 Intermetallic compounds in solar cell interconnections: Microstructure and growth kinetics
Geipel, T.; Moeller, M.; Walter, J.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2017 Solar potential on commercial trucks: Results of an irradiance measurement campaign on 6 trucks in Europe and USA
Eitner, U.; Ebert, M.; Zech, T.; Schmid, C.; Watts, A.; Heinrich, M.
Konferenzbeitrag
2016 Comprehensive Study of Intermetallic Compounds in Solar Cell Interconnections Including Lead-Free, Low Melting Point Solders
Geipel, T.; Möller, M.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2016 Mosaic modules for improved design options in building integrated photovoltaic modules
Ebert, M.; Mittag, M.; Fellmeth, T.; Spribille, A.; Mindehoud, T.; Gijzen, G.; Fath, K.; Hecker, R.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2016 Die parasitäre Kapazität eines PV-Moduls als Ursache für einen erhöhten Ableitstrom und Indikator für den Feuchteeintrag im Verkapselungsmaterial
Berg, H.; Hsian Saw, M.; Philipp, D.
Konferenzbeitrag
2016 Mechanical stress in solar cells with multi busbar interconnection - parameter study by FEM simulation
Rendler, L.C.; Kraft, A.; Ebert, C.; Eitner, U.; Wiese, S.
Konferenzbeitrag
2016 Insights into metastability of photovoltaic materials at the mesoscale through massive I-V analytics
Peshek, T.J.; Fada, J.S.; Hu, Y.; Xu, Y.; Elsaeiti, M.A.; Schnabel, E.; Köhl, M.; French, R.H.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2016 A comprehensive study of intermetallic compounds in solar cell interconnections and their growth kinetics
Geipel, T.; Moeller, M.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2016 Photovoltaic Modules: Technology and Reliability
Wirth, H.; Weiß, K.-A.; Wiesmeier, C.
Buch
2016 Investigation of Thermomechanical Stress in Solar Cells with Multi Busbar Interconnection by Finite Element Modeling
Rendler, L.C.; Kraft, A.; Ebert, C.; Wiese, S.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2016 Low-temperature interconnection of PVD-aluminium metallization
Geipel, T.; Kumm, J.; Moeller, M.; Kroely, L.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.; Wolf, A.; Zhang, Z.; Wolfahrt, P.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2016 The impact of ribbon properties on measured peel forces
Eitner, U.; Rendler, L.C.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2016 TPEDGE: Glass-glass photovoltaic module for BIPV-applications
Mittag, M.; Neff, T.; Hoffmann, S.; Ebert, M.; Eitner, U.; Wirth, H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2016 Influence of Photovoltaic Module Mounting Systems on the Thermo-Mechanical Stresses in Solar Cells by FEM Modelling
Beinert, A.J.; Ebert, M.; Eitner, U.; Aktaa, J.
Konferenzbeitrag
2016 A PVT collector concept with variable film insulation and low-emissivity coating
Lämmle, M.; Thoma, C.; Hermann, M.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2015 Characterization of copper diffusion in silicon solar cells
Kraft, A.; Wolf, C.; Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2015 Triangular Ribbons for Improved Module Efficiency
Mittag, M.; Beinert, A.J.; Rendler, L.C.; Ebert, M.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2015 Long term stability of copper front side contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells
Kraft, A.; Wolf, C.; Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
2015 Solarenergie zur Stromerzeugung
Kiefer, K.
Aufsatz in Buch
2015 A low concentrating cell and receiver concept based on low cost silicon solar cells
Ebert, M.; Fellmeth, T.; Dörsam, T.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Wiesenfarth, M.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2015 TPedge: Qualification of a gas-filled, encapsulation-free glass-glass photovoltaic module
Mittag, M.; Haedrich, I.; Neff, T.; Hoffmann, S.; Eitner, U.; Wirth, H.
Konferenzbeitrag
2015 Modelling and verification of mechanical stress induced by soldering of wires for multi busbar interconnection
Rendler, L.C.; Walter, J.; Geipel, T.; Volk, M.; Ebert, C.; Eitner, U.
Konferenzbeitrag
2014 Hybrid PV-thermal collector development: Concepts, experiences, results and research needs
Fortuin, S.; Hermann, M.; Stryi-Hipp, G.; Nitz, P.; Platzer, W.
Konferenzbeitrag
Diese Liste ist ein Auszug aus der Publikationsplattform Fraunhofer-Publica

This list has been generated from the publication platform Fraunhofer-Publica