Module Technology

R&D Services

Cell Interconnection

The interconnection of solar cells causes ohmic and optical losses in a module. We use various soldering technologies and industrial stringing equipment for measuring and optimizing the quality of the joints.


With advanced characterization methods we are able to analyse all aspects of laminate properties. We focus on fast and accurate methods to accelerate product and process development cycles.

Integrated Modules

We develop integrated module designs to meet specific requirements and create tailored product solutions.

Module Efficiency

Solar cells usually suffer from losses when integrated into a module. We analyze the effects down to the material level and assess the potential for optimization.

FEM-Simulations of PV Modules and Components

Finite element method (FEM) simulations can quickly reveal optimization potential of PV modules and their components.

Fraunhofer ISE offers a comprehensive range of services for module product development and materials testing. We provide support for turning innovative ideas into reliable, efficient and competitive products, as well as for improving quality and efficiency in existing module and interconnection concepts.

Our research covers the integration of high-efficiency solar cells, reliable soldering processes, conductive adhesive technology, laminate-free edge-sealed solar modules and the cell-to-module (CTM) power and efficiency optimization.

We are able to develop, improve and test your products to meet industrial demands. Our excellently equipped Fraunhofer ISE Module Technology Center (Module-TEC) supports development from first ideas to module pilot manufacturing.

© Fraunhofer ISE
With SmartCalc.CTM, Fraunhofer ISE has developed a software that helps reduce the cell-to-module power losses in PV module manufacturing.

SmartCalc.CTM is a tool for the fast and precise calculation of cell-to-module losses and gains for solar modules.

The combination of sophisticated scientific models and measured data provide the basis for CTM loss analysis of a wide range of module concepts and materials. An intuitive graphical user interface allows for quick and easy virtual protoytyping.


© Fraunhofer ISE
Industrial stringer for the interconnection of solar cells at Module-TEC

Module-TEC offers extensive facilities to develop module technology. It fills the gap between laboratory development and industrial production technology by allowing relevant charge numbers and formats to be processed. In addition to production and processing technology, numerous analytical facilities are available for quality control. Our research is concentrating on connection technology for crystalline solar cells, integration of high-efficiency cells into modules and the analysis and optimization of module efficiency. In parallel, we are developing application-specific customized modules for building integration (BIPV) and integration into vehicles.

Selected Research Projects



High-Throughput Production System and Process Technology for Crystalline Silicon Solar Modules



Development of Vehicle-Integrated Photovoltaics for On-Board Charging of Electric Utility Vehicles


CTM 100+

Improving Module Performance by Analysis of Cell-to-Module Losses with SmartCalc.CTM

Latest Press Releases


Press Release - September 9, 2019

Fraunhofer ISE Presents Colored Solar Car Roof

The demand for electric vehicles is increasing worldwide. To extend the driving range, the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has developed a solar car roof with highly efficient solar cells. 


Press Release - January 9, 2019

Adhesive Process Developed for Shingle Cell Technology

The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Freiburg has developed a special adhesive process to interconnect silicon solar cells for the industrial production of shingle modules. The market demand for shingle modules is rising rapidly due to their high efficiency and pleasing aesthetics. The cell stringer at Fraunhofer ISE is unique in Germany. It offers a wide range of possibilities for the prototype production of this highly efficient module.


Press Release - October 24, 2018

Joint Research by Fraunhofer ISE and Heraeus for High-performance Solar Modules

The Fraunhofer ISE and Heraeus are researching and optimizing novel, selectively coated cell connectors in a joint research project. The Selectively Coated Ribbon (SCRTM) cell connector achieves an average gain of 1.9 W in conventional 60-cell solar modules.

Downloads: Flyer of Module Technology

Brochure: Photovoltaic Module Technology

Flyer: SmartCalc.CTM: Precise Cell-to-Module Analysis

Flyer: Colored PV Modules for Building Integration

Flyer: Electrically Conducive Adhesives in PV Modules

Flyer: High Efficiency Matrix Shingle Modules

Flyer: Increased Efficiency with Bifacial Shingle Modules

Flyer: FEM Simulation

Current publications - Module Technology


YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.