Production processes

© Fraunhofer ISE
Blick ins Concentrator Technology & Evaluation Center (ConTEC) des Fraunhofer ISE.

Within the work of ConTEC (Concentrator Technology and Evaluation Center) we develop production processes for manufacturing concentrator modules. We have the same equipment available at the center as is used in industrial settings allowing us to develop processes with high throughput rates. In order to ensure quality standards, assemblies and modules are characterized either inline or offline.

The following equipment is available at ConTEC:


  • Delvotec bonder model 4500:
    placing solar cells measuring 1 mm² to 400 mm² with a precision of 15 µm @ 3 sigma
  • Rehm V8 Nitro reflow oven:
    soldering in air or nitrogen atmosphere and controlled curing of conductive adhesives
  • Hesse & Knipps BJ 820 thin wire bonder:
    ultrasonic welding of gold and aluminum wires 20 – 85 µm thick
  • Manz Inline.speed dispenser and pick & place robot:
    placing and assembling components on a maximum surface area of 800 x 1100 mm² to ensure solar cells are precisely aligned with optics
  • Hesse & Knipps BJ 910 thick wire bonder:
    ultrasonic bonding of aluminum wires 125 – 500 µm thick
  • Centrotherm VLO 12 vacuum soldering oven:
    vacuum soldering of surfaces up to 300 x 300 mm² to achieve voidless soldering joints and to enable soldering without flux using formic acid or activated forming gas
  • UV drying and various handling systems
  • Inline characterization and classification of solar cell assemblies by measuring IV characteristic curves
  • Dage 4000 series pull and shear tester for characterizing and ensuring the quality of electrical contacts