Scanning elctron micrograph (SEM) of Phase Change Materials PCM

The scanning electron micrograph gives a qualitative impression of the size distribution of the paraffin microcapsules. Large capsules (app. 5 µm) and many small capsules can be seen. Whereas the number of small capsules is much greater than that of large ones, their volume percentage is small.

Phase-change slurry storage

Phase-change slurries consist of a phase-change material and a carrier liquid. A dispersion is formed which remains fluid, independent of the physical state of the phase-change material. Its viscosity depends on the concentration of dispersed PCM.

Heat and Cold Storage

In the research topic Heat and Cold Storage, our work focuses on the following fields of work:

 

Materials Development

 

Component Development

 

Storage System Layout

 

System Integration

More than 40 percent of the final energy demand in Germany is used for the provision of heat and cold in buildings. Consumption is subject to strong seasonal, daily and weekly fluctuations. Thermal storage is therefore a key technology for ensuring the flexible provision of heating and cooling in buildings. By using thermal and also electrical storage solutions, the generation and consumption of renewable energy can be decoupled from each other.

With the energy transformation and the greater availability of renewable energy, the requirements on the dimensioning and control of supply systems in buildings increases. In addition, global warming increases the need for building cooling. Building developers, property developers of large installations, technical building equipment suppliers as well as component and material manufacturers are increasingly faced with the challenge of providing heating and cooling in their buildings and systems in a demand-oriented, cost-effective and efficient manner.

Fraunhofer ISE develops and optimizes heat and cold storage systems for residential and office buildings as well as for power plants and industrial applications. In the building segment, we work on storage solutions for temperatures ranging from 0 to around 100 degrees Celsius, storage capacities of up to 500 kWh and a storage duration of a few hours up to several days. We cover the entire value chain and support our customers in the selection of suitable technologies, the development of new materials and components, the optimization of storage systems as well as in analysis, monitoring and operational optimization.

Fraunhofer ISE researches and develops solutions for various storage technologies:

Latent heat storage

Phase change materials do not change their temperature during charging and discharging. The change in the state of aggregation is used for storage. In the case of a solid-liquid phase transition, the latent heat corresponds to the heat of melting or crystallization of the storage material. Within a defined, narrow temperature range, phase change materials offer significantly higher storage densities than conventional sensible storage materials. Phase change materials can be used in many applications in buildings and industry. They are also very well suited for temperature buffering in batteries, electronic components or household appliances. The development, characterization and selection of suitable phase change materials as well as the research of efficient methods for heat transfer are the main focus of Fraunhofer ISE's activities.

Sensible storage/water storage tanks

Sensible heat storage using water as a heat transfer medium is already being used on a large scale in buildings for domestic hot water and space heating, e.g. as decentralized storage tanks in the home or as central storage systems for buildings and real estate, including residential areas. In these storage systems, the supply and extraction of thermal energy manifests itself noticeably by a temperature change. Water is very well suited as a heat transfer medium because it has a comparatively high specific heat capacity, is widely available and safe for the environment. Nevertheless, there are still R&D issues, e.g. with regard to reducing heat losses through better insulation or the development of optimized charging and discharging devices.

Sorptive storage

Sorptive systems store heat based on the physical interaction between two substances, the sorbent and the sorbate. Often the adsorption of gases on porous materials (adsorption) such as silica gels, zeolites or Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) is used, but liquids can and are also used for gas absorption. In thermochemical storage, the chemical bond between two substances is used for heat storage. The hydration (binding of water) of salts such as CaCl2, MgCl2 or MgSO4 is an example here. Both concepts offer a virtually loss-free possibility to store heat. Compared to sensible storage systems, sorption and thermochemical storage systems offer higher storage densities. They are used in the building sector in air conditioning and ventilation systems, for example. However, these systems require more complex systems and generally higher investment costs compared to purely sensible storage systems. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the system, the boundary conditions, the material, the reactor design and thus the costs of heat generation is essential in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of different storage solutions.

Selected Research Projects

 

Thermal Fabric

Technological Design and Thermal Fluid Dynamic Characterization of Wire Fabric-Based Micro Heat Exchangers with High Performance Potential

 

Rural-Li

Robust Lithium Battery Storage for Use in Isolated PV Systems of Low Power

Stefan Gschwander

Contact Press / Media

Stefan Gschwander

Heat and Cold Storage

Fraunhofer ISE
Heidenhofstr. 2
79110 Freiburg

Phone +49 761 4588-5494

Publications

 

YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
2019Adsorption dynamics of MOF coatings for waste heat driven cooling
Laurenz, E.; Velte, A.; Kummer, H.; Füldner, G.; Schnabel, L.
Conference Paper
2019Development and Characterisation of Advanced Materials for Heat Transformation Applications
Ernst, Sebastian-Johannes; Bart, Hans-Jörg (Referent); Henning, Hans-Martin (Referent)
Dissertation
2019Development of adsorbent coatings on thermal conductive structures for adsorption processes
Bendix, Phillip; Henning, Hans-Martin (Referent); Janiak, Christoph (Referent); Henninger, Stefan (Betreuer)
Dissertation
2019Evaluation of the Influence of User Behavior on PCM Systems in Buildings and Real Long Term Stability after up to 15 Years in Operation: Presentation at Eurotherm Seminar 112 Advances in Thermal Energy Storage, Lleida, Spain, 15.05.2019 - 17.05.2019
Obergfell, T.; Haussmann, T.; Geschwander, S.
Presentation
2019Iridium oxide catalyst for hybrid electrochromic device based on tetramethylthiourea (TMTU) redox electrolyte
Bogati, S.; Basnet, R.; Georg, A.
Journal Article
2019Review of in situ Test Methods for Solar Thermal Installations
Fahr, S.; Tschopp, D.; Nielsen, J.E.; Kramer, K.; Ohnewein, P.
Conference Paper
2019Thermal stability enhancement of D-mannitol for latent heat storage applications
Neumann, H.; Burger, D.; Taftanazi, Y.; Alferez Luna, M.P.; Haussmann, T.; Hagelstein, G.; Gschwander, S.
Journal Article
2019Untersuchung zum Kristallisationsverhalten in n-Octadecan-Wasser-Dispersionen
Hagelstein, Georg; Henning, Hans-Martin (Referent); Bartsch, Eckhard (Referent)
Dissertation
2018Closed Adsorption Heat Storage - A Life Cycle Assessment on Material and Component Levels
Nienborg, B.; Helling, T.; Fröhlich, D.; Horn, R.; Munz, G.; Schossig, P.
Journal Article
2018Clustering the Occupant Behavior in Residential Buildings: A Method Comparison
Carbonare, N.; Pflug, T.; Wagner, A.
Conference Paper
2018Cycling stability of D-mannitol when used as phase change material for thermal storage applications
Neumann, H.; Niedermaier, S.; Gschwander, S.; Schossig, P.
Journal Article
2018Development of highly efficient, glazed PVT collectors with overheating protection to increase reliability and enhance energy yields
Lämmle, M.; Hermann, M.; Kramer, K.; Panzer, C.; Piekarczyk, A.; Thoma, C.; Fahr, S.
Journal Article
2018Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage Materials and Components
Nienborg, B.; Gschwander, S.; Munz, G.; Fröhlich, D.; Helling, T.; Horn, R.; Weinläder, H.; Klinker, F.; Schossig, P.
Journal Article
2018Thermal stability enhancement of D-Mannitol for latent heat storage applications
Burger, D.; Neumann, H.; Taftanazi, Y.; Haussmann, T.; Hagelstein, G.; Gschwander, S.
Conference Paper
2018Thermal stability enhancement of D-mannitol for latent heat storage applications: Presentation held at 14th International Conference on Energy Storage, EnerStock 2018, Adana, Turkey, 25-28 April 2018
Burger, D.; Neumann, H.; Taftanazi, Y.; Haussmann, T.; Hagelstein, G.; Gschwander, S.
Presentation
2017Empirical equation to estimate viscosity of paraffin
Ferrer, G.; Gschwander, S.; Solé, A.; Barreneche, C.; Fernandez, A.I.; Schossig, P.; Cabeza, L.F.
Journal Article
2017Gebäude mit überwiegend solarer Energieversorgung: Vortrag gehalten bei den Berliner Energietagen, Berlin, Germany, 03.-05. Mai 2017
Kramer, W.; Drück, H.; Steinweg, J.
Presentation
2017Reduction of supercooling in paraffin phase change slurry by polyvinyl alcohol
Hagelstein, G.; Gschwander, S.
Journal Article
2017Solare Energieversorgungskonzepte für Wohngebäude - Messtechnischen Analysen zum Betriebsverhalten und Bewertungsverfahren für die Strom- und Wärmeversorgung: Zusammenfassung
Oliva, A.; Bestenlehner, D.; Drück, H.; Bockelmann, F.; Peter, M.
Conference Paper
2017Solare Wärmeversorgung von Quartieren: Vortrag gehalten bei den Berliner Energietagen, Berlin, Germany, 03.-05. Mai 2017
Scholte, C.; Kramer, W.; Bestenlehner, D.; Orozaliev, J.
Presentation
2016Assessment of thermodynamic equilibrium properties of salt hydrates for heat transformation applications at different temperature levels
Laurenz, E.; Füldner, G.; Schnabel, L.
Abstract
2016Comparison of the future residual load in fifteen countries and requirements to grid-supportive building operation
Klein, K.; Killinger, S.; Fischer, D.; Streuling, C.; Salom, J.; Cubi, E.
Conference Paper
2016Nucleation of PCMs in confined geometries
Hagelstein, G.; Gschwander, S.
Conference Paper
2016Numerical study on load shifting strategies for the heating and cooling of an office building considering variable grid conditions
Klein, K.; Kalz, D.; Herkel, S.
Conference Paper
2016Untersuchung und simulationstechnische Optimierung von Wärmeversorgungskonzepten für Wohngebäude, deren Gesamtwärmebedarf zu 50 % bis 100 % mit Solarwärme gedeckt wird und Vergleich mit anderen CO2-reduzierten Wärmeversorgungskonzepten. Schlussbericht zum Verbundvorhaben: Akronym "HeizSolar", Laufzeit des Vorhabens: 01.09.2010 bis 31.08.2015
Oliva, A.; Stryi-Hipp, G.; Kobelt, S.; Bestenlehner, D.; Drück, H.; Müller, M.; Bühl, J.; Dasch, G.; Kerschl, C.
Report
2015High-yield, fluoride-free and large-scale synthesis of MIL-101(Cr)
Zhao, T.; Jeremias, F.; Boldog, I.; Nguyen, B.; Henninger, S.K.; Janiak, C.
Journal Article
2015Unconventional experimental technologies available for phase change materials (PCM) characterization. Pt.1. Thermophysical properties
Cabeza, L.F.; Barreneche, C.; Martorell, I.; Miro, L.; Sari-Bey, S.; Fois, M.; Paksoy, H.O.; Sahan, N.; Weber, R.; Constantinescu, M.; Anghel, E.M.; Malikova, M.; Krupa, I.; Delgado, M.; Dolado, P.; Furmanski, P.; Jaworski, M.; Haussmann, T.; Gschwander, S.; Fernandez, A.I.
Journal Article
2015Unconventional experimental technologies used for phase change materials (PCM) characterization. Pt.2 - morphological and structural characterization, physico-chemical stability and mechanical properties
Fernandez, A.I.; Sole, A.; Giro-Paloma, J.; Martinez, M.; Hadjieva, M.; Boudenne, A.; Constantinescu, M.; Anghel, E.M.; Malikova, M.; Krupa, I.; Penalosa, C.; Lazaro, A.; Paksoy, H.O.; Cellat, K.; Vecstaudza, J.; Bajare, D.; Sumiga, B.; Boh, B.; Haussmann, T.; Gschwander, S.; Weber, R.; Furmanski, P.; Jaworski, M.; Cabeza, L.F.
Journal Article
2014Advancement of sorption-based heat transformation by a metal coating of highly-stable, hydrophilic aluminium fumarate MOF
Jeremias, F.; Fröhlich, D.; Janiak, C.; Henninger, S.K.
Journal Article
2014Energiesystem Deutschland 2050: Vortrag gehalten auf der Bauphysik-Tagung, 04. November 2014, Düsseldorf
Henning, H.,; Palzer, A.
Presentation
2014Latentwärmespeicher in zentralen Lüftungsanlagen
Haussmann, T.; Heuer, A.; Bauer, S.; Mertes, F.
Conference Paper
2014Multicycle water vapour stability of microporous breathing MOF aluminium isophthalate CAU-10-H
Fröhlich, D.; Henninger, S.K.; Janiak, C.
Journal Article
2014Optimierter Betrieb von KWKK-Systemen mit Speichern - Case Study am Beispiel einer Liegenschaft
Klein, K.; Wahl, A.; Huang, M.; Sonntag, M.; Kalz, D.; Herkel, S.
Conference Paper
2014Stability of sugar alcohols as PCM for thermal energy storage
Solé, A.; Neumann, H.; Niedermaier, S.; Martorell, I.; Schossig, P.; Cabeza, L.F.
Journal Article
2014Water and methanol adsorption on MOFs for cycling heat transformation processes
Jeremias, F.; Fröhlich, D.; Janiak, C.; Henninger, S.K.
Journal Article
2013Application oriented investigation of PCS on thermal and hydraulic properties: Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Energy Storage, IC-SES 2013; June 19-21, Trintiy College, Dublin, Ireland
Rudolph, J.; Vorbeck, L.; Gschwander, S.; Haussmann, T.; Neumann, H.; Schossig, P.
Presentation
2013Intercomparative tests on phase change materials characterisation with differential scanning calorimeter
Lazaro, A.; Peñalosa, C.; Solé, A.; Diarce, G.; Haussmann, T.; Fois, M.; Zalba, B.; Gshwander, S.; Cabeza, L.F.
Journal Article
2013Pilot application of phase change slurry in a 5 m3 storage
Vorbeck, L.; Gschwander, S.; Thiel, P.; Lüdemann, B.; Schossig, P.
Journal Article
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.