Applications for Tandem Photovoltaics

Integrated photovoltaics opens up many new opportunities for PV installations, facilitates the widespread dissemination of photovoltaics and brings on the energy transition. For each application of use, however, there are different criteria which must be fulfilled to optimize the combination of functionality and design. For building-integrated (BIPV) and urban-integrated (UIPV) applications, limited available space is often an issue. Also, long-term stability and technical and safety regulations play a role. Vehicle-integrated photovoltaics VIPV requires flexible structures which can withstand mechanical vibrations due to constant movement and harsh weather conditions. And, of course, pleasing aesthetics is always important. Depending on the application, other criteria such as power output variability, yield performance under extreme temperature conditions and cost efficiency must be fulfilled. Tandem solar cells – both III-V multi-junction cells and the emerging hybrid tandem technologies such as perovskite on silicon and III-V on silicon – show potential for fulfilling the requirements of different market applications and future niche markets. In research, however, there are still many challenges to be met and further developments to be made. Fraunhofer ISE with its wide-ranging expertise ranging from tandem cell and material development through production and module technology up to application-oriented research is well-situated to take on these challenges and bring the tandem technology forward. 

Potential Fields of Application


Urban Photovoltaics


Building-Integrated Photovoltaics


Vehicle-Integrated Photovoltaics