Large-scale Battery Storage

© Fraunhofer ISE

Large-scale stationary storage systems ("front-of-the-meter-storage") can serve as short-term storage systems to make large amounts of renewable electricity quickly accessible to the power grid. They can also be used to increase the transmission capacities of the power grids, thereby reducing the need for grid expansion. Equipped with grid-forming converters, large-scale storage systems will play a key role in the dynamic stabilization and control of power grids in the future. Large-scale storage systems will be needed to take over the grid-forming tasks (voltage and frequency control) carried out today by the conventional must-run power plants. These storage systems can also store large quantities of surplus renewable electricity temporarily, feeding it later into the grid at a profit when demand is high.

Follow-up Use of Conventional Power Plant Sites

The significant expansion of large-scale stationary battery storage, especially in conjunction with photovoltaic power, holds great potential. The stored PV electricity can be fed into the interconnected grids in line with demand, thus optimizing yield. In addition, large-scale storage systems can be set up at former, conventional power plant sites, making use of these existing connections to the power grid. In the future, such large-scale storage facilities will play an important role in grid stability and security of supply.

R&D Services

Our services for transmission system operators, energy suppliers, PV power plant operators as well as for project developers, system integrators and system manufacturers comprise:

  • development of safe, reliable and efficient battery systems
  • development of highly efficient and functional power electronics
  • concept development and operating control strategies for optimized technical integration and grid stability
  • holistic quality assurance, including PV yield assessment

Quick-Facts: Large-scale Battery Storage

  • Installed capacity and expansion demand
    • Installed capacity in Germany (2021): approx. 750 MWh1
    • Total storage demand in Germany by 2030: 104 GWh, by 2045: 180 GWh, of which large-scale battery storage can cover a significant share
  • Technologies:
    • Primarily lithium-ion batteries, in some cases also as hybrid storage, e.g. in combination with sodium-sulfur batteries or redox-flow batteries
  • Advantages:
    • Economical:
      Optimized grid utilization, reduced dependence on electricity imports, shutdown of unprofitable, conventional power plants, new marketing options for operators of PV and wind farms
    • Ecological:
      Greenhouse gas-neutral electricity production (reduction of CO2 emissions), extensive integration of renewable energies, positive contribution to the environmental balance through use of second-life storage

[1]Figgener, J., “The development of battery storage systems in Germany: A market review (status 2022)”

Selected Research Projects


Hybrid Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Solution with 1500 V Systems Technology, Innovative Thermal Management and Optimizing Operation Management


Energy and Economic Efficiency for Smart Communities through Integrated Multi Storage Technologies

Our R&D Infrastructure on this Topic:


Center for Electrical Energy Storage


Center for Power Electronics and Sustainable Grids


TestLab Power Electronics


Battery Testing