World record for both sides-contacted silicon solar cell

The TOPCon technology, developed at Fraunhofer ISE, makes 25.3 percent efficiency possible.

High-Efficiency Cell Fabrication and Analysis

R&D Services

We have research and development expertise in the following areas. We have a fully functioning clean room and an extensive technology park at our disposal for conducting our work.

Analyzing, evaluating and assessing innovative new silicon solar cell concepts

Utilizing new technologies for manufacturing ultra-efficient silicon solar cells

Realizing prototype solar cells

Manufacturing specially adapted reference solar cells

Developing silicon heterojunction solar cells

The physical efficiency limit of silicon solar cells is 29%. Our research goal is to bring technology as close as possible to this physical limit. A wide variety of concepts are therefore being researched to minimize loss mechanisms to the greatest possible extent. The key aspects here include reducing surface recombination in silicon, lowering recombination losses at metal contacts and maximizing light trapping in silicon (e.g. by using diffraction gratings on the rear side of solar cells).

The purpose of this work is not only to achieve the highest efficiencies, however, but also to develop future technologies. Alongside classic processes such as diffusion and oxidization, newer technologies are also the subject of research. Examples include ALD (atomic layer deposition) for the deposition of ultra-thin passivation layers (e.g. Al2O3), ion implantation and PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) for depositing amorphous or microcrystalline silicon layers.

New developments and concepts for increasing efficiency and reducing costs sometimes introduce novel, complex processing steps. Such developments therefore demand a high degree of understanding for the relevant physical processes. In addition to comprehensive characterization and analysis tools we employ multidimensional numerical simulations, allowing us to deepen this understanding further. Numerical modeling, both of the manufacturing process and the finished solar cell, is a key enabler in reducing time to market, as it allows major cuts to be made in the number of experiments necessary.
Alongside extensive technological resources, we are therefore able to draw on in-depth characterization methods to manufacture high-efficiency solar cells.

Selected Research Projects

 

ForTeS

 

PersiST

Perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells

 

PV-NIL

 

Current publications - High-Efficiency Cell Fabrication and Analysis:

YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
201720% efficient solar cells fabricated from epitaxially grown and freestanding n-type wafers
Milenkovic, N.; Driessen, M.; Steinhauser, B.; Benick, J.; Lindekugel, S.; Hermle, M.; Janz, S.; Reber, S.
Journal Article
2017The application of poly-Si/SiOx contacts as passivated top/rear contacts in Si solar cells
Feldmann, F.; Reichel, C.; Müller, R.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2017Impact of material and process variations on the distribution of multicrystalline silicon PERC cell efficiencies
Wasmer, S.; Greulich, J.; Höffler, H.; Wöhrle, N.; Demant, M.; Fertig, F.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2016Atomic Layer Deposited Molybdenum Oxide for the Hole-Selective Contact of Silicon Solar Cells : 6th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics 2016, Chambéry, France, 07.03.2016-09.03.2016
Bivour, M.; Macco, B.; Temmler, J.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2016Comprehensive simulation study of industrially relevant silicon solar cell architectures for an optimal material parameter choice
Steinkemper, H.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2016Contact fault characterisation of complex silicon solar cells: A guideline based on current voltage characteristics and luminescence imaging
Padilla, M.; Reichel, C.; Hagedorn, N.; Fell, A.; Keding, R.; Michl, B.; Kasemann, M.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2016Efficiency increase of crystalline silicon solar cells with nanoimprinted rear side gratings for enhanced light trapping
Eisenlohr, J.; Tucher, N.; Hauser, H.; Graf, M.; Benick, J.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2016Enabling Solderability of PVD Al Rear Contacts on High-Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Wet Chemical Treatment
Nagel, H.; Kamp, M.; Eberlein, D.; Kraft, A.; Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2016High-efficiency n-type silicon solar cells: Advances in PassDop technology and NiCu plating on boron emitter
Steinhauser, B.; Kamp, M.; Brand, A.A.; Jäger, U.; Bartsch, J.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2016Identification of defects causing performance degradation of high temperature n-type Czochralski silicon bifacial solar cells
Gaspar, G.; Coletti, G.; Juel, M.; Würzner, S.; Søndenå, R.; Sabatino, M. di; Arnberg, L.; Ovrelid, E.J.
Journal Article
2016The influence of nitrogen on laser doping from phosphorous doped a-SiNx layers
Steinhauser, B.; Jäger, U.; Benick, J.; Chong, E.; Lam, J.; Steeman, R.; Rostan, H.; Nekarda, J.; Hermle, M.; Preu, R.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2016Large area patterning using interference and nanoimprint lithography
Bläsi, B.; Tucher, N.; Höhn, O.; Kübler, V.; Kroyer, T.; Wellens, C.; Hauser, H.
Conference Paper
2016Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS
Tucher, N.; Eisenlohr, J.; Gebrewold, H.; Kiefel, P.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2016PC1Dmod 6.2 - improved simulation of c-Si devices with updates on device physics and user interface
Haug, H.; Greulich, J.
Journal Article
2016Perimeter recombination characterization by luminescence imaging
Fong, K.C.; Padilla, M.; Fell, A.; Franklin, E.; McIntosh, K.R.; Kho, T.C.; Blakers, A.W.; Nebel-Jacobsen, Y.; Surve, S.R.
Journal Article
2016Photovoltaics - Crystalline Silicon and Beyond: Presentation held at Photovoltaic Seminar, 9.9.2016, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland
Glunz, S.
Presentation
2016Rear side gratings for silicon solar cells: Efficiency enhancement finally demonstrated
Bläsi, B.; Tucher, N.; Eisenlohr, J.; Lee, B.G.; Benick, J.; Hauser, H.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2016Simplified device simulation of silicon solar cells using a lumped parameter optical model
Fell, A.; McIntosh, K.R.; Fong, K.C.
Journal Article
2016Systematic analysis of diffuse rear reflectors for enhanced light trapping in silicon solar cells
Pfeffer, F.; Eisenlohr, J.; Basch, A.; Hermle, M.; Lee, B.G.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2016Understanding process-related efficiency variations of mc-Si PERC cells
Wasmer, S.; Greulich, J.; Höffler, H.; Wöhrle, N.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2016Untangling the mysteries of plated metal finger adhesion: Understanding the contributions from plating rate, chemistry, grid geometry, and sintering
Wang, X.; Hsiao, P.-C.; Zhang, W.; Johnston, B.; Stokes, A.; Wei, Q.; Fell, A.; Surve, S.; Shengzhao, Y.; Verlinden, P.; Lennon, A.
Journal Article
2015Adapted parameterization of incomplete ionization in aluminum-doped silicon and impact on numerical device simulation
Steinkemper, H.; Rauer, M.; Altermatt, P.; Heinz, F.D.; Schmiga, C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2015Analysis of n-type IBC solar cells with diffused boron emitter locally blocked by implanted phosphorus
Müller, R.; Reichel, C.; Schrof, J.; Padilla, M.; Selinger, M.; Geisemeyer, I.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2015Charge carrier separation in solar cells
Würfel, U.; Cuevas, A.; Würfel, P.
Journal Article
2015Charge redistribution and extraction in photocatalytically synthesized Au-ZnO nanohybrids
Chanaewa, A.; Schmitt, J.; Meyns, M.; Volkmann, M.; Klinke, C.; Hauff, E. von
Journal Article
2015Cloaked contact grids on solar cells by coordinate transformations: Designs and prototypes
Schumann, M.F.; Wiesendanger, S.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.; Bittkau, K.; Paetzold, U.W.; Sprafke, A.; Wehrspohn, R.B.; Rockstuhl, C.; Wegener, M.
Journal Article
2015Development of nanoimprint processes for photovoltaic applications
Hauser, H.; Tucher, N.; Tokai, K.; Schneider, P.; Wellens, C.; Volk, A.; Seitz, S.; Benick, J.; Barke, S.; Dimroth, F.; Müller, C.; Glinsner, T.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2015Development of NIL processes for PV applications
Hauser, H.; Tucher, N.; Tokai, K.; Schneider, P.; Wellens, C.; Volk, A.; Barke, S.; Müller, C.; Glinsner, T.; Bläsi, B.
Conference Paper
2015Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Plated Ni/Cu Contacts for Si Solar Cells
Kluska, S.; Bartsch, J.; Büchler, A.; Cimiotti, G.; Brand, A.A.; Hopman, S.; Glatthaar, M.
Conference Paper
2015Enhanced energy conversion of up-conversion solar cells by the integration of compound parabolic concentrating optics
Arnaoutakis, G.E.; Marques-Hueso, J.; Ivaturi, A.; Fischer, S.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Krämer, K.W.; Richards, B.S.
Journal Article
2015High and Low Work Function Materials for Passivated Contacts
Feldmann, F.; Ritzau, K.-U.; Bivour, M.; Moldovan, A.; Modi, S.; Temmler, J.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2015High efficiency multicrystalline silicon solar cells: Potential of n-type doping
Schindler, F.; Schön, J.; Michl, B.; Riepe, S.; Krenckel, P.; Benick, J.; Feldmann, F.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2015Impact of rear side roughness on optical and electrical properties of a high-efficiency solar cell
Richter, M.; Saint-Cast, P.; Dannenberg, T.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.
Journal Article
2015Industrial N-type PERL cells with screen printed front side electrodes approaching 21% efficiency
Jäger, U.; Steinhauser, B.; Benick, J.; Chong, E.; Lam, J.; Steeman, R.; Rostan, H.; Nekarda, J.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2015Input parameters for the simulation of silicon solar cells in 2014
Fell, A.; McIntosh, K.R.; Altermatt, P.P.; Janssen, G.J.M.; Stangl, R.; Ho-Baillie, A.; Steinkemper, H.; Greulich, J.; Müller, M.; Min, B.; Fong, K.C.; Hermle, M.; Romijn, I.G.; Abbott, M.D.
Journal Article
2015Iron related solar cell instability: Imaging analysis and impact on cell performance
Schubert, M.C.; Padilla, M.; Michl, B.; Mundt, L.; Giesecke, J.; Hohl-Ebinger, J.; Benick, J.; Warta, W.; Tajima, M.; Ogura, A.
Journal Article
2015The irresistible charm of a simple current flow pattern - approaching 25% with a solar cell featuring a full-area back contact
Glunz, S.W.; Feldmann, F.; Richter, A.; Bivour, M.; Reichel, C.; Steinkemper, H.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2015Local Series Resistance Imaging of Silicon Solar Cells with Complex Current Paths
Padilla, M.; Michl, B.; Hagedorn, N.; Reichel, C.; Kluska, S.; Fell, A.; Kasemann, M.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2015Molybdenum and tungsten oxide: High work function wide band gap contact materials for hole selective contacts of silicon solar cells
Bivour, M.; Temmler, J.; Steinkemper, H.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2015Numerical simulation of carrier-selective electron contacts featuring tunnel oxides
Steinkemper, H.; Feldmann, F.; Bivour, M.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2015Optical simulation and analysis of iso-textured silicon solar cells and modules including light trapping
Greulich, J.; Volk, A.-K.; Wöhrle, N.; Hädrich, I.; Wiese, M.; Hermle, M.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2015Passivation-induced cavity defects in laser-doped selective emitter Si solar cells - formation model and recombination analysis
Geisler, C.; Kluska, S.; Hopman, S.; Glatthaar, M.
Journal Article
2015Pathway and technologies for the transformation of the energy system: Presentation held at Sustainability Summit 2015, Freiburg, Germany, October 20, 2015
Bett, A.W.; Henning, H.-M.
Presentation
2015Rear side sphere gratings for improved light trapping in crystalline silicon single junction and silicon-based tandem solar cells
Eisenlohr, J.; Lee, B.G.; Benick, J.; Feldmann, F.; Drießen, M.; Milenkovic, N.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2015Theoretical Investigation of Carrier-Selective Contacts Featuring Tunnel Oxides by Means of Numerical Device Simulation
Steinkemper, H.; Feldmann, F.; Bivour, M.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2015Tunnel oxide passivated carrier-selective contacts based on ultra-thin SiO2 layers
Moldovan, A.; Feldmann, F.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.; Hermle, M.; Benick, J.
Journal Article
2015Tunnel oxide passivated carrier-selective contacts based on ultra-thin SiO2 layers grown by photo-oxidation or wet-chemical oxidation in ozonized water
Moldovan, A.; Feldmann, F.; Kaufmann, K.; Richter, S.; Werner, M.; Hagendorf, C.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2015Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for applications in silicon solar cells
Reichel, C.; Feldmann, F.; Müller, R.; Reedy, R.C.; Lee, B.G.; Young, D.L.; Stradins, P.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2014Absence of quantum confinement effects in the photoluminescence of Si3N4-embedded Si nanocrystals
Hiller, D.; Zelenina, A.; Gutsch, S.; Dyakov, S.A.; Lopez-Conesa, L.; Lopez-Vidrier, J.; Estrade, S.; Peiro, F.; Garrido, B.; Valenta, J.; Korinek, M.; Trojanek, F.; Maly, P.; Schnabel, M.; Weiss, C.; Janz, S.; Zacharias, M.
Journal Article
2014Advanced metallization concepts for p-type silicon Metal-Wrap-Through (MWT) solar cells
Hendrichs, M.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Lohmüller, E.; Nold, S.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Rech, B.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2014Analysing the lateral series resistance of high-performance metal wrap through solar cells
Greulich, J.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2014Analytical investigation of aerosol jet printing
Binder, S.; Glatthaar, M.; Rädlein, E.
Journal Article
2014An analytical model for interdigitated back contact solar cells
Saint-Cast, P.; Padilla, M.; Kimmerle, A.; Reichel, C.
Journal Article
2014Analytical modeling of industrial-related silicon solar cells
Fellmeth, T.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2014Back-junction back-contact n-type silicon solar cell with diffused boron emitter locally blocked by implanted phosphorus
Müller, R.; Schrof, J.; Reichel, C.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Bifacial n-type silicon solar cells for upconversion applications
Rüdiger, M.; Fischer, S.; Frank, J.; Ivaturi, A.; Richards, B.S.; Krämer, K.W.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2014Boron doped a-SiC:H front layers for silicon heterojunction cells
Temmler, J.; Bivour, M.; Steinkemper, H.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2014Carrier-selective contacts for Si solar cells
Feldmann, F.; Simon, M.; Bivour, M.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2014Characterisation of Ultra-Thin µc-Si Films for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells
Wernerus, H.; Bivour, M.; Kroely, L.; Hermle, M.; Wolke, W.
Conference Paper
2014Characterizing local contact resistances of interdigitated back contact silicon solar cells
Padilla, M.; Michl, B.; Reichel, C.; Hagedorn, N.; Kluska, S.; Haag, S.; Keding, R.; Fell, A.; Kasemann, M.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Conference Paper
2014Contacting bare silicon solar cells with advanced cell metallisation
Geisemeyer, I.; Kallies, C.; Hohl-Ebinger, J.; Warta, W.
Conference Paper
2014Crystalline silicon solar cells with high efficiency
Glunz, S.W.
Book Article
2014Doped layer optimization for silicon heterojunctions by injection-level-dependent open-circuit voltage measurements
Bivour, M.; Reusch, M.; Schröer, S.; Feldmann, F.; Temmler, J.; Steinkemper, H.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Efficient carrier-selective p- and n-contacts for Si solar cells
Feldmann, F.; Simon, M.; Bivour, M.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2014Electric field effect surface passivation for silicon solar cells
Bonilla, R.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Wilshaw, P.R.
Conference Paper
2014Electrical and optical characterisation of silicon nancrystals embedded in SiC
Schnabel, M.; Löper, P.; Canino, M.; Dyakov, S.A.; Allegrezza, M.; Bellettato, M.; Lopez-Vidrier, J.; Hernandez, S.; Summonte, C.; Garrido, B.; Wilshaw, P.R.; Janz, S.
Conference Paper
2014Evaluation of implantation annealing for highly-doped selective boron emitters suitable for screen-printed contacts
Müller, R.; Benick, J.; Bateman, N.; Schön, J.; Reichel, C.; Richter, A.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2014Failure mechanisms for solar cells with laser doped selective emitter and plated Ni-Cu metal contacts
Hördt, W.; Geisler, C.; Hopman, S.; Bartsch, J.; Mondon, A.; Glatthaar, M.; Kluska, S.
Conference Paper
2014Firing-stable PassDop passivation for screen printed n-type PERL solar cells based on a-SiNx:P
Steinhauser, B.; Mansoor, M. bin; Jäger, U.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Fluid wrap around during wet chemical single side treatments
Richter, M.; Narayanan, S.; Hain, A.; Zimmer, M.; Rentsch, J.; Reinecke, H.
Conference Paper
2014Heavily doped Si:P emitters of crystalline Si solar cells: Recombination due to phosphorus precipitation
Min, B.; Wagner, H.; Dastgheib-Shirazi, A.; Kimmerle, A.; Kurz, H.; Altermatt, P.P.
Journal Article
2014High-bandgap silicon nanocrystal solar cells: Device fabrication, characterization, and modeling
Löper, P.; Canino, M.; Schnabel, M.; Summonte, C.; Janz, S.; Zacharias, M.
Book Article
2014High-Efficiency n-Type PERT and PERL Solar Cells
Benick, J.; Steinhauser, B.; Müller, R.; Bartsch, J.; Kamp, M.; Mondon, A.
Conference Paper
2014Inkjet-printing for maskless separation of metal structures for back-contact silicon solar cells
Stüwe, D.; Hartmann, P.; Keding, R.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Clement, F.; Prokopiak, S.; Fastnacht, P.; Jesswein, R.; Geppert, T.; Woehl, R.; Korvink, J.G.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2014Interdigitated back contact silicon solar cells with tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation
Reichel, C.; Feldmann, F.; Müller, R.; Moldovan, A.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2014Ion implantation for all-alumina IBC solar cells with floating emitter
Müller, R.; Reichel, C.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Ion implantation into amorphous Si layers to form carrier-selective contacts for Si solar cells
Feldmann, F.; Müller, R.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Micro characterization of laser structured solar cells with plated Ni-Ag contacts
Kluska, S.; Fleischmann, C.; Büchler, A.; Hördt, W.; Geisler, C.; Hopman, S.; Glatthaar, M.
Journal Article
2014Novel light trapping concepts for crystalline silicon solar cells using diffractive rear side structures
Eisenlohr, J.; Tucher, N.; Bett, A.; Hauser, H.; Graf, M.; Benick, J.; Goldschmidt, J.; Bläsi, B.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2014PassDop rear side passivation based on Al2O3/a-SiCx:B stacks for p-type PERL solar cells
Steinhauser, B.; Jäger, U.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Rear emitter silicon heterojunction solar cells. Fewer restictions on the optoelectrical properties of front side TCOs
Bivour, M.; Steinkemper, H.; Jeurink, J.; Schröer, S.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Silicon heterojunction rear emitter solar cells: Less restrictions on the optoelectrical properties of front side TCOs
Bivour, M.; Schröer, S.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2014Surface recombination parameters of interdigitated-back-contact silicon solar cells obtained by modeling luminescence images
Padilla, M.; Höffler, H.; Reichel, C.; Chu, H.; Greulich, J.; Rein, S.; Warta, W.; Hermle, M.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2014TCO work function related transport losses at the a-Si:H/TCO-contact in SHJ solar cells
Ritzau, K.-U.; Bivour, M.; Schröer, S.; Steinkemper, H.; Reinecke, P.; Wagner, F.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Tunnel oxide passivated contacts as an alternative to partial rear contacts
Feldmann, F.; Bivour, M.; Reichel, C.; Steinkemper, H.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2014Upconverter silicon solar cell devices for efficient utilization of sub-band-gap photons under concentrated solar radiation
Fischer, S.; Ivaturi, A.; Fröhlich, B.; Rüdiger, M.; Richter, A.; Krämer, K.; Richards, B.; Goldschmidt, J.
Journal Article
2014Voltage calibration of luminescence images of silicon solar cells
Höffler, H.; Al-Mohtaseb, H.; Haunschild, J.; Michl, B.; Kasemann, M.
Journal Article
2013Alloying from screen-printed aluminum pastes containing boron additives
Rauer, M.; Schmiga, C.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2013Approaching high efficiency wide range silicon solar cells
Rühle, K.; Kasemann, M.
Conference Paper
2013Back-contacted back-junction n-type silicon solar cells featuring an insulating thin film for decoupling charge carrier collection and metallization geometry
Reichel, C.; Granek, F.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2013Boron emitter passivation with AI2O3 and AI2O3/SiNx stacks using ALD AI2O3
Richter, A.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2013Charge transport and electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals/SiO2 superlattices
Lopez-Vidrier, J.; Berencén, Y.; Hernández, S.; Blázquez, O.; Gutsch, S.; Laube, J.; Hiller, D.; Löper, P.; Schnabel, M.; Janz, S.; Zacharias, M.; Garrido, B.
Journal Article
2013Co-diffused back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells
Keding, R.; Stüwe, D.; Kamp, M.; Reichel, C.; Wolf, A.; Woehl, R.; Borchert, D.; Reinecke, H.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2013Co-diffused back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells without gap regions
Keding, R.; Stüwe, D.; Kamp, M.; Reichel, C.; Wolf, A.; Woehl, R.; Borchert, D.; Reinecke, H.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2013Comparison of cleaning processes for enabling solderability of LFC-PERC silicon solar cells with evaporated Al as rear side metallization
Samadi, H.; Kumm, J.; Eberlein, D.; Hartmann, P.; Wolf, A.; Mack, S.
Conference Paper
2013Depletion of boron-doped surfaces protected with barrier layers during POCL3-diffusion
Lohmüller, E.; Werner, S.; Schön, J.; Thanas, M.; Mack, S.; Wolke, W.; Wolf, A.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2013Effective passivation of black silicon surfaces by atomic layer deposition
Repo, P.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Sainiemi, L.; Yli-Koski, M.; Talvitie, H.; Schubert, M.C.; Savin, H.
Journal Article
2013Effects of high-temperature treatment on the hydrogen distribution in silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride stacks for crystalline silicon surface passivation
Schwab, C.; Hofmann, M.; Heller, R.; Seiffe, J.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013Etching of PVD metal layers for contact separation of back contact silicon solar cells using inkjet-printing
Stüwe, D.; Hartmann, P.; Keding, R.; Clement, F.; Woehl, R.; Biro, D.; Fastnacht, P.; Jesswein, R.; Geppert, T.; Prokopiak, S.; Korvink, J.G.
Conference Paper
2013Evaluation of cast mono silicon material for thermal oxide passivated solar cells
Schwab, C.; Haunschild, J.; Graf, M.; Wufka, C.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013Excellent average diffusion lenghts of 600 µm of n-Type multicrystalline silicon wafers after the full solar cell process including boron diffusion
Michl, B.; Benick, J.; Richter, A.; Bivour, M.; Yong, J.; Steeman, R.; Schubert, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2013Fill factor limitation of silicon heterojunction solar cells by junction recombination
Reusch, M.; Bivour, M.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2013Fire-through contacts - a new approach to contact the rear side of passivated silicon solar cells
Thaidigsmann, Benjamin; Kick, Christopher; Drews, Andreas; Clement, Florian; Wolf, Andreas; Biro, Daniel
Journal Article
2013Highly efficient IR to NIR upconversion in Gd2O2S: Er3+ for photovoltaic applications
Martín-Rodríguez, R.; Fischer, S.; Ivaturi, A.; Froehlich, B.; Krämer, K.W.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Richards, B.S.; Meijerink, A.
Journal Article
2013HIP-MWT: Our approach for high performance ribbon based back contact MWT modules with Low CTM losses
Spribille, A.; Hendrichs, M.-S.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Clement, F.; Hädrich, I.; Wiese, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Morf, P.; Gretler, A.; Rueedy, A.; Nussbaumer, H.; Träger, A.
Conference Paper
2013Identification and tackling of a parasitic surface compound in SiC and Si-rich carbide films
Canino, M.; Summonte, C.; Allegrezza, M.; Shukla, R.; Jain, I.P.; Bellettato, M.; Desalvo, A.; Mancarella, F.; Sanmartin, M.; Terrasi, A.; Löper, P.; Schnabel, M.; Janz, S.
Journal Article
2013Increased upconversion quantum yield in photonic structures due to local field enhancement and modification of the local density of states - a simulation-based analysis
Herter, B.; Wolf, S.; Fischer, S.; Gutmann, J.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2013Influence of surface texture on the defect-induced breakdown behavior of multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Kwapil, W.; Nievendick, J.; Zuschlag, A.; Gundel, P.; Schubert, M.C.; Warta, W.
Journal Article
2013Laser assisted honeycomb-texturing on multicrystalline silicon for industrial applications
Volk, A.-K.; Gutscher, S.; Brand, A.; Wolke, W.; Zimmer, M.; Reinecke, H.
Conference Paper
2013Multifunctional PECVD layers: Dopant source, passivation, and optics
Seiffe, J.; Pillath, F.; Trogus, D.; Brand, A.; Savio, C.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Journal Article
2013Nickel-plated front contacts for front and rear emitter silicon solar cells
Rauer, M.; Mondon, A.; Schmiga, C.; Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2013Numerical analysis of electrical TCO / a-Si:H(p) contact properties for silicon heterojunction solar cells
Bivour, M.; Schröer, S.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2013Numerical power balance and free energy loss analysis for solar cells including optical, thermodynamic, and electrical aspects
Greulich, J.; Höffler, H.; Würfel, U.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2013Optoelectronic Characterization of SiC with Embedded Si Nanocrystals as Solar Cell Absorber Material
Löper, P.; Valenta J.; Canino M.; Glunz S.; Janz S.; Zacharias M.
Conference Paper
2013P-Type MWT solar cells: Current status and future expectations
Thaidigsmann, B.; Hendrichs, M.; Nold, S.; Lohmüller, E.; Wolf, A.; Clement, F.; Biro, D.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
2013A passivated rear contact for high-efficiency n-Type silicon solar cells enabling high VocS and FF>82%
Feldmann, F.; Bivour, M.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2013Photonic structures for enhanced upconversion
Herter, B.; Wolf, S.; Fischer, S.; Gutmann, J.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2013Photovoltaik: Technologien und Märkte - Quo Vadis?: Vortrag gehalten auf der 11. Österreichische Photovoltaik-Tagung 2013, St. Pöltgen, Österreich, 19.11.-20.11.2013
Philipps, S.P.; Bett, A.W.
Presentation
2013Photovoltaik: Technologien und Märkte - Quo Vadis?: Vortrag gehalten auf der 11. Nationalen Photovoltaik-Tagung 2013, Basel, Switzerland, 11.03.-12.03.2013
Bett, A.W.
Presentation
2013Potential and limitations of epitaxial emitters
Rachow, T.; Milenkovic, N.; Heinz, F.; Breitwieser, M.; Steinhauser, B.; Janz, S.; Reber, S.
Conference Paper
2013Potential-induced degradation on cell level: The inversion model
Saint-Cast, P.; Nagel, H.; Wagenmann, D.; Schön, J.; Schmitt, P.; Reichel, C.; Glunz, S.W.; Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
2013A predictive optical simulation model for the rear surface roughness of passivated silicon solar cells
Wöhrle, M.; Greulich, J.; Schwab, C.; Glatthaar, M.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2013Predictive simulation of doping processes for silicon solar cells
Schön, J.; Abdollahinia, A.; Müller, R.; Benick, J.; Hermle, M.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2013Processing and characterisation of tandem solar cells from crystalline silicon materials
Janz, S.; Schnabel, M.; Löper, P.; Summonte, C.; Canino, M.; Lopez-Vidrier, J.; Hernandez, S.; Garrido, B.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2013Recombination and microstructural properties of soldering pads and their impact on solar cell performance
Krauß, K.; Fertig, F.; Rein, S.
Journal Article
2013Short-circuit current losses in back-contacted back-junction Si solar cells: Experiment and simulation of the charge collection probability
Reichel, C.; Granek, F.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2013Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon carbide: Investigation of charge carrier transport and recombination
Löper, P.; Canino, M.; Qazzazie, D.; Schnabel, M.; Allegrezza, M.; Summonte, C.; Glunz, S.W.; Janz, S.; Zacharias, M.
Journal Article
2013Silicon nanocrystals from high-temperature annealing: Characterization on device level
Löper, P.; Canino, M.; Lopez-Vidrier, J.; Schnabel, M.; Schindler, F.; Heinz, F.; Witzky, A.; Bellettato, M.; Allegrezza, M.; Hiller, D.; Hartel, A.; Gutsch, S.; Hernandez, S.; Guerra, R.; Ossicini, S.; Garrido, B.; Janz, S.; Zacharias, M.
Journal Article
2013Simplified front surface field formation for back contacted silicon solar cells
Kimmerle, A.; Woehl, R.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2013Structural and optical properties of size controlled Si nanocrystals in Si3N4 matrix: The nature of photoluminescence peak shift
Zelenina, A.; Dyakov, S.A.; Hiller, D.; Gutsch, S.; Trouillet, V.; Bruns, M.; Mirabella, S.; Löper, P.; López-Conesa, L.; López-Vidrier, J.; Estrade, S.; Peiro, F.; Garrido, B.; Bläsing, J.; Krost, A.; Zhigunov, D.M.; Zacharias, M.
Journal Article
2013Structural, optical and electrical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SixC1-x/SiC multilayer systems for photovoltaic applications
López-Vidrier, J.; Hernández, S.; Samà, J.; Canino, M.; Allegrezza, M.; Bellettato, M.; Shukla, R.; Schnabel, M.; Löper, P.; López-Conesa, L.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Janz, S.; Garrido, B.
Journal Article
2013Study of the electrical insulation of dielectric passivation layers and stacks for back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells
Keding, R.; Bock, R.; Katkhouda, K.; Stüwe, D.; Reichel, C.; Clement, F.; Woehl, R.; Reinecke, H.; Geppert, T.
Conference Paper
2013Technologies for mass production of > 20% efficient P-Type silicon solar cells
Mack, S.; Wolf, A.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Lohmüller, E.; Jäger, U.; Pospischil, M.; Clement, F.; Eberlein, D.; Preu, R.; Biro, D.
Conference Paper
2013Thermal oxidation and encapsulation of silicon-carbon nanolayers
Schnabel, M.; Löper, P.; Gutsch, S.; Wilshaw, P.R.; Janz, S.
Journal Article
2013Transfer of the HIP-MWT solar cell concept to n-type silicon
Lohmüller, E.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Clement, F.; Wolf, A.; Biro, D.
Journal Article
2013Wafer thickness optimization for silicon solar cells of heterogeneous material quality
Michl, B.; Kasemann, M.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M.C.
Journal Article
2013Wet chemical single-side emitter etch back for MWT solar cells with AL-BSF and challenges for via paste selection
Spribille, A.; Lohmüller, E.; Thaidigsmann, B.; Hamid, R.; Nussbaumer, H.; Clement, F.; Preu, R.
Conference Paper
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.