Service Life and Failure Analysis


Consulting and


TestLab PV Modules

We test PV modules according to IEC and European standards for design qualification and type approval.

In the field of work “Service Life and Failure Analysis”, we examine the quality and the aging behavior of PV modules as well as their materials and individual components. Throughout our work, we can refer to a large wealth of experience gained in the analysis and evaluation of numerous cases of failures in field operation. In addition, we monitor and examine the aging behavior of PV modules at realistic real time conditions as well as accelerated aging tests. At several outdoor test facilities worldwide, we expose photovoltaic module to determine the correlation between operating data and weathering and to adjust conditions of artificial weathering; we develop procedures to simulate aging mechanisms - like for example so-called “snail trails” - in accelerated aging tests to examine the modules’ sensitivity to specific effects.

In the accredited TestLab PV Modules we perform type-approval tests for photovoltaic modules according to IEC standards as well as customized tests. The synergies which are created through the cooperation of the TestLab PV Modules lead to fast processes of highest quality based on the accreditation according to ISO 17025.

Our many years of experience with module failures in outdoor weathering and accelerated aging tests provide us with a deep understanding of mechanisms and defective material combinations. For tests and analyses, we have the most modern and innovative equipment at our disposal, which we partially developed ourselves for the special application to PV modules.

Selected Research Projects



High-Throughput Production System and Process Technology for Crystalline Silicon Solar Modules



PV Module Life Time Forecast and Evaluation



Development of characterization methodology for modules and systems applying bifacial PV technology

Video, Brochure and Flyer: Service Life and Failure Analysis

Brochure: TestLab PV Modules

Flyer: PV Module Certification

Flyer: PID - Analysis and Mitigation

Flyer: UV Testing and Qualification of PV Modules and Materials

Flyer: Failure and Degradation Analysis for PV Modules

Current publications - Service Life and Failure Analysis


YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
2018Backsheet Chalking - Theoretical Background and Relation to Backsheet Cracking and Insulation Failures
Gebhardt, P.; Bauermann, Pitta L.; Philipp, D.
Conference Paper
2018Categorization of weathering stresses for photovoltaic modules
Köhl, M.; Heck, M.; Wiesmeier, S.
Journal Article
2018Hot-Spot Endurance Test - Modifications for Bifacial Photovoltaic Modules
Philipp, D.; Manuel, H.; Fokuhl, E.; Mülhöfer, G.
Conference Paper
2018Nanoindentation analysis of PV module polymeric components after accelerated aging
Mansour, Djamel Eddine; Swientek, Fabian; Kaaya, Ismail; Philipp, Daniel; Pitta Bauermann, Luciana
Conference Paper
2018Neue Methoden zur Untersuchung der Zuverlässigkeit von Photovoltaikmodulen
Fokuhl, E.; Philipp, D.; Bauermann, L.P.; Stecklum, S.
Conference Paper
2018Review of statistical and analytical degradation models for photovoltaic modules and systems as well as related improvements
Lindig, Sascha; Kaaya, Ismail; Weiß, Karl-Anders; Moser, David; Topic, Marko
Journal Article
2018Scanning Acoustic Microscopy as a Non-Destructive Method for the Investigation of PV Module Components
Verissimo Mesquita, L.; Mansour, D.E.; Philipp, D.; Pitta Bauermann, L.
Conference Paper
2018Training the next generation of PV reliability experts - Project SOLAR-TRAIN with 14 PhD projects: Presentation held at 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018, Waikoloa, Hawaii, June 10-15, 2018
Ismail, K.
2018Wave-Shaped Wires Soldered on the Finger Grid of Solar Cells: Solder Joint Stability under Thermal Cycling
Rendler, L.; Haryantho, A.P.; Walter, J.; Huyeng, J.; Kraft, A.; Wiese, S.; Eitner, U.
Conference Paper
2017Evaluation of damp-heat testing of photovoltaic modules
Koehl, M.; Hoffmann, S.; Wiesmeier, S.
Journal Article
2017Qualification of conductive adhesives for photovoltaic application - Accelerated ageing tests
Bauermann, L.P.; Fokuhl, E.; Stecklum, S.; Philipp, D.; Geipel, T.; Kraft, A.; Eitner, U.; Fischer, T.; Breitenbücher, D.
Journal Article
2017Ribbon interconnection of 6" BC-BJ Solar Cells
Walter, Johann; Rendler, Li Carlos; Halm, Andreas; Mihailetchi, Valentin; Kraft, Achim; Eitner, Ulrich
Journal Article
2017Thermomechanical stress analysis of PV module production processes by Raman spectroscopy and FEM simulation
Beinert, A.J.; Romer, P.; Büchler, A.; Haueisen, V.; Aktaa, J.; Eitner, U.
Journal Article
2016Effect of thermal insulation of the back side of PV modules in the module temperature
Koehl, M.; Hamperl, S.; Heck, M.
Journal Article
2016Insights into metastability of photovoltaic materials at the mesoscale through massive I-V analytics
Peshek, T.J.; Fada, J.S.; Hu, Y.; Xu, Y.; Elsaeiti, M.A.; Schnabel, E.; Köhl, M.; French, R.H.
Journal Article
2016Silver grid finger corrosion on snail track affected PV modules - investigation on degradation products and mechanisms
Dürr, I.; Bierbaum, J.; Metzger, J.; Richter, J.; Philipp, D.; Wirth, H.
Conference Paper
2016Silver grid finger corrosion on snail track affected PV modules - investigation on degradation products and mechanisms
Duerr, I.; Bierbaum, J.; Metzger, J.; Richter, J.; Philipp, D.
Journal Article
2016Yield predictions for photovoltaic power plants: Empirical validation, recent advances and remaining uncertainties
Müller, B.; Hardt, L.; Armbruster, A.; Kiefer, K.; Reise, C.
Journal Article
2015FEM-simulation of water vapor ingress into glass-glass-modules with polymeric edge sealant and a new experimental set up for permeation tests for sealing material
Klimm, E.; Piekarczyk, A.; Vogt, F.; Ballion, A.; Weiß, K.-A.; Köhl, M.
Conference Paper
2015Impact of soiling on IV-curves and efficiency of PV-modules
Schill, C.; Brachmann, S.; Koehl, M.
Journal Article
2015Interlaboratory study to determine repeatability of the damp-heat test method for potential-induced degradation and polarization in crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules
Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Tamizhmani, G.; Tatapudi, S.; Stark, C.; Koch, S.; Weber, T.; Berghold, J.; Hoffmann, S.; Koehl, M.; Dietrich, S.; Ebert, M.; Mathiak, G.
Journal Article
2015Mechanical and chemical characterization of solder joints after accelerated ageing tests
Dürr, I.; Walter, J.; Kraft, A.; Weiß, K.-A.; Eitner, U.; Volk, M.; Ebert, C.
Conference Paper
2015Round robin testing of various back-sheets for PV-modules with different ultra-violet radiation sources and sample temperatures
Köhl, M.; Ballion, A.; Lee, Y.-H.; Wu, H.-S.; Scott, K.; Glick, S.; Hacke, P.; Koo, H.J.
Conference Paper
2015Simulation of water ingress into PV-modules: IEC-testing versus outdoor exposure
Hülsmann, P.; Weiss, K.-A.
Journal Article
2015Soiling and abrasion testing of surfaces for solar energy systems adapted to extreme climatic conditions
Klimm, E.; Kaltenbach, T.; Philipp, D.; Masche, M.; Weiß, K.-A.; Köhl, M.
Conference Paper
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.