Fluorescent concentrators

Colored plates filter out part of the sunlight and redirect it to solar cells mounted on the plate edge. Fluorescent collectors have been developed by the researchers at Fraunhofer ISE as early as the 1980s. Now using new materials and techniques, improvements in the economic viability of the product are anticipated.

Photon Management

R&D Services

Our R&D services comprise:

Upconversion

Microstructured Surfaces

Fluorescent Collectors

Spectral Splitting

Optical Simulation

The aim of photon management is to increase solar cell efficiencies by either splitting or modifying the spectrum of sunlight before it hits the solar cell, or by altering the light’s path inside the solar cell in such a way that more light is absorbed. This increases efficiency and lowers the cost per kWh for the electrical energy produced. A major advantage of this technology is that it can be combined both with existing technologies like crystalline silicon, and with emerging technologies like organic solar cells.

One particular area of focus is the use of advanced optical concepts to improve light absorption in solar cells. These include nano- and microstructures that provide the solar cell surface with antireflection properties and thereby ensure that more light reaches the solar cell. By using photonic structures on the front of the cell that selectively reflect light depending on its angle and energy, and by using diffractive or other structures that redirect light on the rear, light can be prevented from exiting the solar cell.

The majority of solar cells available today consist of a single semiconductor material with a p-n junction. Such cells are only able to utilize part of the energy in the solar spectrum. In the business area of Photon Management, we develop concepts and technologies that can be employed to overcome such basic limitations in conventional solar cell efficiency. Upconversion is a key aspect of our research in this field. Some 20% of the photons contained in sunlight possess too little energy to be used by silicon solar cells. Upconversion generates one high energy photon that can then be utilized by the solar cell out of two or more low energy photons.

Our work encompasses the development of new concepts, developing and characterizing materials, and manufacturing complete solar cell systems with new functionalities.

Selected Research Projects

 

NaLuWiLeS

Nano-structures for luminescence amplification to increase the efficiency value of LEDs and solar cells

 

PersiST

Perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells

 

PV-NIL

 

Current publications - Photon Management:

YearTitle/AuthorDocument Type
2017Characterizing the degradation of PDMS stamps in nanoimprint lithography
Tucher, N.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Müller, C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2017Interference and nanoimprint lithography for the patterning of large areas
Tucher, N.; Hauser, H.; Höhn, O.; Kübler, V.; Wellens, C.; Müller, C.; Bläsi, B.
Conference Paper
2017Nondestructive probing of perovskite silicon tandem solar cells using multiwavelength photoluminescence mapping
Mundt, L.; Heinz, F.D.; Albrecht, S.; Mundus, M.; Saliba, M.; Correa-Baena, J.P.; Anaraki, E.H.; Korte, L.; Rech, B.; Grätzel, M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Schubert, M.C.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2016Coloured module glass for BIPV inspired by morpho butterfly
Bläsi, B.; Kroyer, T.; Höhn, O.; Ferrara, C.; Kuhn, T.E.
Conference Paper
2016Comparative analysis of upconversion efficiencies in fluoride materials for photovoltaic application
Favilla, E.; Cittadino, G.; Veronesi, S.; Tonelli, M.; Fischer, S.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Cassanho, A.; Jenssen, H.P.
Journal Article
2016Comprehensive analysis of photonic effects on up-conversion of β-NaYF4:Er3+ nanoparticles in an organic-inorganic hybrid 1D photonic crystal
Hofmann, C.; Fischer, S.; Reitz, C.; Richards, B.S.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2016Enhanced upconversion quantum yield near spherical gold nanoparticles - a comprehensive simulation based analysis
Fischer, S.; Kumar, D.; Hallermann, F.; Plessen, G. von; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2016Formation of silicon nanocrystals in silicon carbide using flash lamp annealing
Weiss, C.; Schnabel, M.; Prucnal, S.; Hofmann, J.; Reichert, A.; Fehrenbach, T.; Skorupa, W.; Janz, S.
Journal Article
2016Large area patterning using interference and nanoimprint lithography
Bläsi, B.; Tucher, N.; Höhn, O.; Kübler, V.; Kroyer, T.; Wellens, C.; Hauser, H.
Conference Paper
2016Nanoparticle Scattering for Multijunction Solar Cells: The Tradeoff between Absorption Enhancement and Transmission Loss
Mellor, A.; Hylton, N.P.; Hauser, H.; Thomas, T.; Lee, K.-H.; Al-Saleh, Y.; Giannini, V.; Braun, A.; Loo, J.; Vercruysse, D.; Van Dorpe, P.; Blasi, B.; Maier, S.A.; Ekins-Daukes, N.J.
Journal Article
2016Optical Modeling of Honeycomb Textures for Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Peters, I.; Hauser, H.; Tucher, N.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2016Rear side gratings for silicon solar cells: Efficiency enhancement finally demonstrated
Bläsi, B.; Tucher, N.; Eisenlohr, J.; Lee, B.G.; Benick, J.; Hauser, H.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2016Systematic analysis of diffuse rear reflectors for enhanced light trapping in silicon solar cells
Pfeffer, F.; Eisenlohr, J.; Basch, A.; Hermle, M.; Lee, B.G.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2016Upconversion in a Bragg structure: Photonic effects of a modified local density of states and irradiance on luminescence and upconversion quantum yield
Hofmann, C.; Herter, B.; Fischer, S.; Gutmann, J.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2015Cloaked contact grids on solar cells by coordinate transformations: Designs and prototypes
Schumann, M.F.; Wiesendanger, S.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.; Bittkau, K.; Paetzold, U.W.; Sprafke, A.; Wehrspohn, R.B.; Rockstuhl, C.; Wegener, M.
Journal Article
2015Development of nanoimprint processes for photovoltaic applications
Hauser, H.; Tucher, N.; Tokai, K.; Schneider, P.; Wellens, C.; Volk, A.; Seitz, S.; Benick, J.; Barke, S.; Dimroth, F.; Müller, C.; Glinsner, T.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2015Development of NIL processes for PV applications
Hauser, H.; Tucher, N.; Tokai, K.; Schneider, P.; Wellens, C.; Volk, A.; Barke, S.; Müller, C.; Glinsner, T.; Bläsi, B.
Conference Paper
2015Effects of angular confinement and concentration to realistic solar cells
Höhn, O.; Kraus, T.; Schwarz, U.T.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2015Enhanced energy conversion of up-conversion solar cells by the integration of compound parabolic concentrating optics
Arnaoutakis, G.E.; Marques-Hueso, J.; Ivaturi, A.; Fischer, S.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Krämer, K.W.; Richards, B.S.
Journal Article
2015Fluorescent concentrators for photovoltaic applications
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Prönneke, L.; Büchtemann, A.; Gutmann, J.; Steidl, L.; Dyrba, M.; Wiegand, M.-C.; Ahrens, B.; Wedel, A.; Schweizer, S.; Bläsi, B.; Zentel, R.; Rau, U.
Book Article
2015Light-trapping in solar cells by directionally selective filters
Ulbrich, C.; Peters, M.; Fahr, S.; Üpping, J.; Kirchartz, T.; Rockstuhl, C.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Gerber, A.; Lederer, F.; Wehrspohn, R.B.; Bläsi, B.; Rau, U.
Book Article
2015Matrix formalism for light propagation and absorption in thick textured optical sheets
Eisenlohr, J.; Tucher, N.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Peters, M.; Kiefel, P.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2015Rear side diffractive gratings for silicon wafer solar cells
Peters, M.; Hauser, H.; Bläsi, B.; Kroll, M.; Helgert, C.; Fahr, S.; Wiesendanger, S.; Rockstuhl, C.; Kirchartz, T.; Rau, U.; Mellor, A.; Steidl, L.; Zentel, R.
Book Article
2015Rear side sphere gratings for improved light trapping in crystalline silicon single junction and silicon-based tandem solar cells
Eisenlohr, J.; Lee, B.G.; Benick, J.; Feldmann, F.; Drießen, M.; Milenkovic, N.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2015Record efficient upconverter solar cell devices with optimized bifacial silicon solar cells and monocrystalline BaY2F8:30% Er3+ upconverter
Fischer, S.; Favilla, E.; Tonelli, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2015Up-conversion materials for enhanced efficiency of solar cells
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Fischer, S.; Steinkemper, H.; Herter, B.; Wolf, S.; Hallermann, F.; Plessen, G. von; Johnson, J.; Ahrens, B.; Miclea, P.-T.; Schweizer, S.
Book Article
2015Upconversion for photovoltaics - A review of materials, devices and concepts for performance enhancement
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Fischer, S.
Journal Article
2015Upconverting core-shell nanocrystals with high quantum yield under low irradiance: On the role of isotropic and thick shells
Fischer, S.; Johnson, N.J.J.; Pichaandi, J.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Veggel, F.C.J.M. van
Journal Article
2014Absolute upconversion quantum yield of beta-NaYF4 doped with Er3+ and external quantum efficiency of upconverter solar cell devices under broad-band excitation considering spectral mismatch corrections
Fischer, S.; Fröhlich, B.; Steinkemper, H.; Krämer, K.W.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2014Bifacial n-type silicon solar cells for upconversion applications
Rüdiger, M.; Fischer, S.; Frank, J.; Ivaturi, A.; Richards, B.S.; Krämer, K.W.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2014Enhanced up-conversion for photovoltaics via concentrating integrated optics
Arnaoutakis, G.E.; Marques-Hueso, J.; Ivaturi, A.; Krämer, K.; Fischer, S.; Goldschmidt, J.; Richards, B.S.
Journal Article
2014Front side antireflection concepts for silicon solar cells with diffractive rear side structures
Bett, A.; Eisenlohr, J.; Höhn, O.; Bläsi, B.; Benick, J.; Repo, P.; Savin, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2014Hexagonal sphere gratings for enhanced light trapping in crystalline silicon solar cells
Eisenlohr, J.; Benick, J.; Peters, M.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2014Large area plasmonic nanoparticle arrays with well-defined size and shape
Meisenheimer, S.-K.; Jüchter, S.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Wellens, C.; Kübler, V.; Hauff, E. von; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2014Maximal power output by solar cells with angular confinement
Höhn, O.; Kraus, T.; Bauhuis, G.; Schwarz, U.T.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2014Novel light trapping concepts for crystalline silicon solar cells using diffractive rear side structures
Eisenlohr, J.; Tucher, N.; Bett, A.; Hauser, H.; Graf, M.; Benick, J.; Goldschmidt, J.; Bläsi, B.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2014Optimized scalable stack of fluorescent solar concentrator systems with bifacial silicon solar cells
Martínez Díez, A.L.; Gutmann, J.; Posdziech, J.; Rist, T.; Gómez Plaza, D.; Goldschmidt, J.
Journal Article
2014Optoelectronic simulation of GaAs solar cells with angularly selective filters
Kraus, T.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2014Organic upconverters embedded in a Bragg structure
Hofmann, C.; Herter, B.; Gutmann, J.; Löffler, J.; Fischer, S.; Wolf, S.; Piper, R.; Ekins-Daukes, N.J.; Treat, N.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2014The photonic solar cell. System design and efficiency estimations
Höhn, O.; Kraus, T.; Schwarz, U.T.; Bläsi, B.
Conference Paper
2014Record efficient upconverter solar cell devices
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Fischer, S.; Herter, B.; Fröhlich, B.; Krämer, K.W.; Richards, B.S.; Ivaturi, A.; MacDougall, S.K.W.; Marques Hueso, J.; Favilla, E.; Tonelli, M.
Conference Paper
2014Relation between excitation power density and Er3+ doping yielding the highest absolute upconversion quantum yield
Fischer, S.; Fröhlich, B.; Krämer, K.W.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2014Study of plasmonic nanoparticle arrays for photon management in solar cells
Bläsi, B.; Jüchter, S.; Meisenheimer, S.-K.; Höhn, O.; Hauser, H.; Wellens, C.
Conference Paper
2014Upconversion quantum yield of Er3+-doped Beta-NaYf4 and Gd2O2s: The effects of host lattice, Er3+ doping, and excitation spectrum bandwidth
Fischer, S.; Martín-Rodríguez, R.; Fröhlich, B.; Krämer, K.; Meijerink, A.; Goldschmidt, J.
Journal Article
2014Upconverter silicon solar cell devices for efficient utilization of sub-band-gap photons under concentrated solar radiation
Fischer, S.; Ivaturi, A.; Fröhlich, B.; Rüdiger, M.; Richter, A.; Krämer, K.; Richards, B.; Goldschmidt, J.
Journal Article
2013Highly efficient IR to NIR upconversion in Gd2O2S: Er3+ for photovoltaic applications
Martín-Rodríguez, R.; Fischer, S.; Ivaturi, A.; Froehlich, B.; Krämer, K.W.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Richards, B.S.; Meijerink, A.
Journal Article
2013Increased upconversion quantum yield in photonic structures due to local field enhancement and modification of the local density of states - a simulation-based analysis
Herter, B.; Wolf, S.; Fischer, S.; Gutmann, J.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2013Integrating diffractive rear side structures for light trapping into crystalline silicon solar cells
Eisenlohr, J.; Hauser, H.; Benick, J.; Mellor, A.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2013Photonic structures for enhanced upconversion
Herter, B.; Wolf, S.; Fischer, S.; Gutmann, J.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2013Predicting the performance of photonic luminescent solar concentrators
Gutmann, J.; Zappe, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2013Quantitative modeling of fluorescent emission in photonic crystals
Gutmann, J.; Zappe, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2013Spectral splitting module geometry that utilizes light trapping
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Do, C.; Peters, M.; Goetzberger, A.
Conference Paper
2013Stark level analysis of the spectral line shape of electronic transitions in rare earth ions embedded in host crystals
Steinkemper, H.; Fischer, S.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2012Absolute Upconversion Quantum Yield of ß-NaYF4 Doped with Er³+ and External Quantum Efficiency of Solar Cell Upconverter Devices under Broad-Band Excitation considering Spectral Mismatch Corrections
Fischer, S.; Fröhlich, B.; Steinkemper, H.; Krämer, K.W.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2012Comparison between periodic and stochastic parabolic light trapping structures for thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells
Peters, M.; Battaglia, C.; Forberich, K.; Bläsi, B.; Sahraei, N.; Aberle, A.G.
Journal Article
2012Effects of photonic structures on upconversion
Herter, B.; Wolf, S.; Fischer, S.; Peters, M.; Bläsi, B.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2012Electromagnetic simulations of a photonic luminescent solar concentrator
Gutmann, J.; Peters, M.; Bläsi, B.; Hermle, M.; Gombert, A.; Zappe, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2012Emission of Rhodamine B in PMMA opals for luminescent solar concentrators
Gutmann, J.; Posdziech, J.; Peters, M.; Steidl, L.; Zentel, R.; Zappe, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2012Exploiting photonic structures to improve the efficiency of upconversion by field enhancement and a modification of the local density of photonic states
Wolf, S.; Herter, B.; Fischer, S.; Höhn, O.; Martín-Rodríguez, R.; Aeberhard, U.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2012Increasing upconversion by plasmon resonance in metal nanoparticles - a combined simulation analysis
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Fischer, S.; Steinkemper, H.; Hallermann, F.; Plessen, G. von; Krämer, K.W.; Biner, D.; Hermle, M.
Journal Article
2012Modeling upconversion of erbium doped microcrystals based on experimentally determined Einstein coefficients
Fischer, S.; Steinkemper, H.; Löper, P.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2012Plasmon enhanced upconversion luminescence near gold nanoparticles - simulation and analysis of the interactions
Fischer, S.; Hallermann, F.; Eichelkraut, T.; Plessen, G. von; Krämer, K.W.; Biner, D.; Steinkemper, H.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Journal Article
2011Characterization of Infrared-Active Fluorescent Concentrators
Posdziech, J.; Wiegand, M.-C.; Dyrba, M.; Schweizer, S.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2011Directionally selective light trapping in a germanium solar cell
Peters, M.; Ulbrich, C.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Fernandez, J.; Siefer, G.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2011Efficiency limit and example of a photonic solar cell
Peters, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Bläsi, B.
Journal Article
2011Experimental analysis of upconversion with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and broad spectrum illumination
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Fischer, S.; Löper, P.; Krämer, K.W.; Biner, D.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2011Investigation on the Intensity Dependence of Upconversion Systems
Steinkemper, H.; Fischer, S.; Krämer, K.W.; Biner, D.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2011Monte Carlo Simulation of Complex Fluorescent Concentrator Systems
Rist, T.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2011One-Dimensional SiC Photonic Structures to Enhance the Efficiency of Systems with Silicon Solar Cells and Upconverters
Herter, B.; Peters, M.; Janz, S.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2011Photon Management Structures Based on Interference Lithography and Nanoimprint Processes
Bläsi, B.; Hauser, H.; Walk, C.; Michel, B.; Mellor, A.; Guttowski, A.; Jüchter, S.; Wellens, C.; Peters, M.; Kübler, V.; Wolf, A.J.
Conference Paper
2011Photon Management Structures for Solar Cells - From Modeling to Fabrication
Bläsi, B.; Hauser, H.; Peters, M.; Mellor, A.; Jüchter, S.; Wellens, C.; Guttowski, A.; Kübler, V.; Wolf, A.J.
Conference Paper
2011Photon management structures originated by interference lithography
Bläsi, B.; Hauser, H.; Höhn, O.; Kübler, V.; Peters, M.; Wolf, A.J.
Conference Paper
2011Towards photonic luminescent solar concentrators
Gutmann, J.; Peters, M.; Bläsi, B.; Hermle, M.; Zappe, H.; Goldschmidt, J.C.
Conference Paper
2010Calculation of up-conversion photoluminescence in Er3+ ions near noble-metal nanoparticles
Hallermann, F.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Fischer, S.; Löper, P.; Plessen, G. von
Conference Paper
2010Calibrated photoluminescence measurements of the upconverter NaYF4:20% ER3+ for silicon solar cells
Fischer, S.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Krämer, K.W.; Biner, D.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2010Electro - optical simulation of diffraction in solar cells
Peters, M.; Rüdiger, M.; Bläsi, B.; Platzer, W.
Journal Article
2010Electro-optical modelling of solar cells with photonic structures
Peters, M.; Rüdiger, M.; Pelzer, D.; Hauser, H.; Hermle, M.; Bläsi, B.
Conference Paper
2010Enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells by a directionally selective filter
Ulbrich, C.; Peters, M.; Bläsi, B.; Kirchartz, T.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.
Journal Article
2010Enhancement of silicon solar cell efficiency by upconversion: Optical and electrical characterization
Fischer, S.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Löper, P.; Bauer, G.H.; Brüggemann, R.; Krämer, K.; Biner, D.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Journal Article
2010Improved efficiency of hybrid solar cells based on non-ligand-exchanged CdSe quantum dots and poly(3-hexylthiophene)
Zhou, Y.; Riehle, F.S.; Yuan, Y.; Schleiermacher, H.-F.; Niggemann, M.; Urban, G.A.; Krüger, M.
Journal Article
2010Increasing fluorescent concentrator light collection efficiency by restricting the angular emission characteristic of the incorporated luminescent material - the "Nano-Fluko" concept
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Peters, M.; Gutmann, J.; Steidl, L.; Zentel, R.; Bläsi, B.; Hermle, M.
Conference Paper
2010Photonic crystals in solar cells - a simulation approach
Peters, M.; Rüdiger, M.; Hermle, M.; Bläsi, B.
Conference Paper
2010Plasma texturing of thin film solar cells
Keller, M.; Janz, S.; Reber, S.; Lindekugel, S.
Conference Paper
2010Upconversion to enhance silicon solar cell efficiency - detailed experimental analysis with both coherent monochromatic irradiation and white light illumination
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Fischer, S.; Löper, P.; Krämer, K.W.; Biner, D.; Hermle, M.; Glunz, S.W.
Conference Paper
2009Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems
Goldschmidt, J.C.; Peters, M.; Bösch, A.; Helmers, H.; Dimroth, F.; Glunz, S.W.; Willeke, G.
Journal Article
2008Upconversion for silicon solar cells: Material and system characterisation
Löper, P.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Fischer, S.; Peters, M.; Meijerink, A.; Biner, D.; Krämer, K.; Schultz-Wittmann, O.; Glunz, S.W.; Luther, J.
Conference Paper
This publication list has been generated from the publication database Fraunhofer-Publica.